R String Contains

To find the length of a String in R, use nchar() function. Besides a some new string distance algorithms it now contains two convenient matching functions: amatch: Equivalent to R's match function but allowing for approximate matching. Is the string empty?. In this first example, we want to find all of the records in the customers table where the customer's last_name begins with 'J'. Here is a VBA code which also can do you a favor, please do as follows: 1. The class template basic_string stores and manipulates sequences of char-like objects, which are non-array objects of trivial standard-layout type. One of the few posts on text processing in R that lays things out in an easily understood format. A vector can only contain a single data type (i. The maxJsonLength Gets or sets the maximum length that is accepted by the JavaScriptSerializer object for JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) strings. See actions taken by the people who manage and post content. Start studying Chapter 14 Strings. we need the string "\\. This is a way to take many vectors of different types and store them in the same variable. Web Design HTML Tutorials Online HTML, CSS and JS Editor CSS Tutorials Bootstrap 4 Tutorials. check if a string or character doesn't exists in an another string. Hi R users, I'd like to know if anyone has come across problems wherein it was necessary to check if strings contained all alphabets, some numbers or all. How can I format a string containing a date into R "Date" object? | R FAQ Converting dates entered as strings into numeric dates in R is simple for a single string, similarly simple for a vector of strings if the date information is represented consistently, and a little trickier if the date information is not represented consistently. In this tutorial you'll learn how to use Python's rich set of operators, functions, and methods for working with strings. To array enter the formula into all the cells, first select the entire range that is to receive the results, enter =NoBlanks (A1:A10) in the first cell and press CTRL SHIFT ENTER. FindString returns a string holding the text of the leftmost match in s of the regular expression. Facebook is showing information to help you better understand the purpose of a Page. If pattern is an array containing multiple patterns, then contains returns 1 if it finds any element of pattern in str. ----- EPA/600/R-93/174 September 1993 HYDROLOGICAL SIMULATION PROGRAM -- FORTRAN USER'S MANUAL FOR RELEASE 10 Brian R. So files are uploaded (though they are warned), but dependent libraries don't be installed (then not work). How do I replace a string with another string in all files? For example, ~/foo directory has 100s of text file and I’d like to find out xyz string and replace with abc. For instance, the string in question is "Hello \ there". So, how do I detect if the string contain chinese word?. string str does not contain the. Basically we are going to perform a string comparison using JavaScript. The section on regular expressions may be useful to understand the rest of the page, even if it is not necessary if you only need to perform some simple tasks. PatternSyntaxException if pattern for regular expression is invalid. ) I am getting tripped up by filtering out a partial string in multiple columns. Kotlin has an awesome feature called string templates that allows strings to contain template expressions. This method returns true if a specified sequence of characters is present in a given string, otherwise it returns false. To grep for files that contain any of. Either a character vector, or something coercible to one. How to check if a string contains only certain characters by using loops I am trying to verify that my string only contains the following values, '\n', '. Additionally, a string may be enclosed by triple quotes. Create a Regex object by invoking the. Hi R users, I'd like to know if anyone has come across problems wherein it was necessary to check if strings contained all alphabets, some numbers or all. In this post, I will provide an introduction to the functionality R offers for converting strings to dates. Call the string 'ken' If I run get-aduser location. Searching inside a folder tree for a string within a file OK, I give up I'm trying to search for a particular string like "xyz" in a bunch of *. The ZIP file contains all you need, including usage examples if the author has provided them. Coerced by as. A string is a fixed-length array of characters. (Bass is pronounced "base," as in "baseball. This book aims to provide a panoramic perspective of the wide array of string manipulations that you can perform with R. ill in the blanks to create a pattern that matches strings that contain 3 characters, out of which the last character is an exclamation mark. If you're storing it as text at any point, you've defeated the purpose of secure strings and it really isn't that much less secure to just keep it as plain text until you really need it to be a securestring type. I want to tell if the string contains at least one of the 'cheese', 'pizza' or 'pear'. You can see the little rectangles in the first string. 1) Let input string be 'str[]' and length of string be 'n' 2) l = 0, r = n-1 3) While l is smaller than r, do following a) If str[l] is not an alphabetic character, do l++ b) Else If str[r] is not an alphabetic character, do r-- c) Else swap str[l] and str[r] Below are implementations of above algorithm. format them as sequences of characters), including: a constant string of characters, in double quotes (i. y) Arguments. We will address this scenario first. Given string contains with in string Given string does not contain with in string For first case: We are checking string (substring) "How" in the string str , the condition will be true because string str contains "How" but in other (second) case we are cheking "Who" which is not exists in string str i. Many string built-ins accept an optional string parameter, the so called "flags". To array enter the formula into all the cells, first select the entire range that is to receive the results, enter =NoBlanks (A1:A10) in the first cell and press CTRL SHIFT ENTER. mystring2) Alpha Checks whether the given string contains only alphabetic. Let's develop a fuller example. using System; using System. In the second case, the second r is missing. Note that after a substring R is erased, the remaining substring becomes separated, i. Every regular expression is either an alphabet symbol, specifying the singleton set containing that symbol, or composed from the following operations (where R and S are REs): Union: R | S, specifying the union of the sets R and S ,. The string splits at the specified separator. +* Moved default user options and toggles from Language to User. Finally, [\\/] will match with the occurrences of forward and backward slash. gsub() function replaces all matches of a string, if the parameter is a string vector, returns a string vector of the same length and with the same attributes (after possible coercion to character). Problem; Solution. If duplicates. Follows the logic of simple SQL or basic commands. Subject: check if a string contains a list of substrings. toTitleCase (if different from Char. Create a Regex object by invoking the. R's subsetting operators are powerful and fast. This tutorial explains some of the most useful string or character functions in R. I want to identify that the first 2 strings have numbers in them and not display them in a combo box. Get unstuck. Regular expressions usually contain a lot of backslashes. Similarly, a pattern in R can contain words or certain symbols with special meanings. Circle::Circle(double r, string c) {You need to include the className:: (called class scope resolution operator) in front of all the members names, so as to inform the compiler this member belong to a particular class. Rules Applied in String Construction. I needed to retain any row that had a "utm_source" and "utm_medium" and "utm_campaign". That is not correct. Does a list contain an object? Does a list contain an object? Usage contains(. For example, letter i means that the built-in should not differentiate the lower and upper-case variation of the same letter. A string can be mutable or immutable. Strings have the usual meaning: a sequence of characters. The R documentation claims that the default flavor implements POSIX extended regular expressions. IndexRune returns the index of the first instance of the Unicode code point r, or -1 if rune is not present in s. APPLIES TO: SQL Server Azure SQL Database Azure SQL Data Warehouse Parallel Data Warehouse Searches for precise or fuzzy (less precise) matches to single words and phrases, words within a certain distance of one another, or weighted matches in SQL Server. As you can see, the R substring function returns a vector that contains a substring for each last point that we have specified (i. Follows the logic of simple SQL or basic commands. Basically we are going to perform a string comparison using JavaScript. , > = [[Multiple lines of text >> can be enclosed in double square >> brackets. Without this parameter, Select-String will find only the first match in each line. To get the position of a regular expression match(es) in a text string x:. , you need the regexp \. Quick Example: -- Find cities that start with A SELECT name FROM cities WHERE name REGEXP '^A'; Overview: Synonyms REGEXP and RLIKE are synonyms Syntax string [NOT] REGEXP pattern Return 1 string matches pattern 0 string does not match pattern NULL string or pattern are NULL Case Sensitivity. The split() method takes maximum of 2 parameters: separator (optional)- The is a delimiter. In this section, we show you how. The following example shows how to search through all the files in the current directory for lines that do not contain the letter e. Operations on String that are null safe. paste for the reverse, grep and sub for string search and manipulation; further nchar, substr. Data sample:. Each time that the pushbutton is clicked, the text string will be updated to show the total number of clicks since the GUI started. You need the regex to consume the whole string (or fail, if it can't). Meta-characters (including semicolons, spaces, backslashes, dollar signs, question marks, and asterisks) are characters that are interpreted under Unix as commands or instructions. character string containing a regular expression (or character string for fixed = TRUE) to be matched in the given character vector. Kid: Kabhi naam nahi puchha,. This is the appropriate behaviour for partial matching of character indices, for example. For example :. It is easy for humans to read and write. String matches() method is one of the most convenient way of checking if String matches to a regular expression in Java or not. Significance of Trailing Blanks Both CHAR and VARCHAR data types store strings up to n bytes in length. GetDataBack Pro's clean interface guides you to your lost data in no time. These have more intuitive names, and all start with str_. Encoding is the process of transforming a set of Unicode characters into a sequence of bytes. Is there any R function to do that? Regards,. In this example, we have a table called customers with the. Char objects that represent a string. Otherwise false. If pattern is an array containing multiple patterns, then contains returns 1 if it finds any element of pattern in str. When the string is defined as a Raw string, Python does not honor the backslash as a special character. But it may be slower in common. [^\\/]+ would find 1 or more occurrences of sub-strings that do not contain forward or backward slash. Updated daily with lyrics, reviews, features, meanings and more. Some characters. It returns 0 if the first argument contains comma. If the arguments are vectors, they are concatenated term-by-term to give a character vector result. by comparing only bytes), using fixed(). Circular string linearization. That is why Str2 and Str5 need to be eight characters, even though "arduino" is only seven - the last position is automatically filled with a null character. - 42-Jul 9 '16 at 0:44 @greg121 dplyr already has a contains function, but it's used for a different purpose: to select a column in a data frame. This site contains affiliate links. StringUtils provides method called hasLength(input String), which returns true if String is not null and contains any character, including white space. There are multiple versions that construct Strings from different data types (i. ) This will ensure the query string conforms with valid HTTP. a character vector where matches are sought, or an object which can be coerced by as. Method 2: Extract number only from text strings with VBA code. windows directory paths. Now, reverse the string 't' 3. Someone You Loved Chords by Lewis Capaldi, Cant Help Falling In Love Chords by Elvis Presley, Perfect Chords by Ed Sheeran and other tabs @ Ultimate-Guitar. Hello, How to find a string is already present in a list. chr = 'this is a string' chr = "this is a string" chr = "this 'is' valid" chr = 'this "is" valid' We can create an empty string with empty_str = "" or an empty character vector with empty_chr. I thought if I used: if list in string: that would work, but it didn't, TypeError: 'in ' requires string as left operand, not list. If duplicates. The split() method takes maximum of 2 parameters: separator (optional)- The is a delimiter. What if you are looking for files that must match more than one string? Here is a quick run down on how you can use grep or egrep to match multiple strings. The optionnal which output argument gives the index of first string of needle found. Boolean Strings A string in Python can be tested for truth value. character to a character string if possible. It's a straight to the point reference about connection strings, a knowledge base of articles and database connectivity content and a host of Q & A forums where developers help each other in finding solutions. Tidy Data - A foundation for wrangling in R Tidy data complements R's vectorized operations. a char array). Can you tell me – how do I find a file containing a particular text string on my Linux server? I have to admit that there are tens. For example i have a list that contains data now if i want to write the data in to another list during this i want to keep a condition whether the string is already present in the list. Learn, teach, and study with Course Hero. A "raw" string literal is prefixed by an 'r' and passes all the chars through without special treatment of backslashes, so r'x x' evaluates to the length-4 string 'x x'. To find the length of a String in R, use nchar() function. character(barcode))) GSN[with(GSN, order(n, barcode)), ] It appears that the issue you were having is because R thinks that barcode is a factor rather. Python string method find() determines if string str occurs in string, or in a substring of string if starting index beg and ending index end are given. It's a straight to the point reference about connection strings, a knowledge base of articles and database connectivity content and a host of Q & A forums where developers help each other in finding solutions. Some characters. For example, haacckkerrannkk does contain hackerrank, but haacckkerannk does not (the characters all appear in the same order, but it's missing a second r). A string template expression starts with a dollar sign $. Object to test for. Otherwise if the match is false (None to be more specific), then the search did not succeed, and there is no matching text. The string splits at the specified separator. So to create the regular expression \. If str is a character vector or a string scalar, k is a vector of doubles indicating the index of each occurrence of pattern. It is also because there's several ways to accomplish this task in R. It reads well and returns boolean, which means you can directly use it inside if statements. I have tried several variations of subset and grep, without success. Note: You may find the String. Copying, use, modification, and creation of derivative works from this project is licensed under an MIT-style license. Now, Traverse the input string and string 't' at a time a. Migration should + be transparent in most cases. Can you tell me – how do I find a file containing a particular text string on my Linux server? I have to admit that there are tens. edu: Subject Re: st: How to check whether a string variable contains some characters: Date Sat, 26 May 2012 00:25:34 +0100. When the search string contains multiple words, separated with spaces, then FINDSTR will return lines that contain either word (OR). Java String FAQ: How can I tell if a Java String contains a given regular expression (regex) pattern? In a Java program, you want to determine whether a String contains a case-insensitive regular expression (regex). VBA Function. If it exist anywhere in the string, then return true. I'd like to know how could I find all files whose extension can be. This filters the sample CO2 data set (that comes with R) for rows where the Treatment variable contains the substring "non". So, to be fully general, we need the code to remove " DEAD" when it appears at the end of the string, and, I presume, if a string contains DEAD both at the end and somewhere else, it should remove only the one at the end. I tried to use 'r'n to replace the new line in the second string. Ask Question Injection from two strings to one string Find all matrices satisfy Where does the image. You can still take. Besides a some new string distance algorithms it now contains two convenient matching functions: amatch: Equivalent to R's match function but allowing for approximate matching. STRING is part of the ELIXIR infrastructure: it is one of ELIXIR's Core Data Resources. Hadley Wickham. This page may be useful to : perform statistical text analysis. As you can see, the R substring function returns a vector that contains a substring for each last point that we have specified (i. This is powerful. Retrieve or replace a substring of a character string via the substr and substring functions. Searches the string for a specified value and returns the last position of where it was found: rindex() Searches the string for a specified value and returns the last position of where it was found: rjust() Returns a right justified version of the string: rpartition() Returns a tuple where the string is parted into three parts. The problem Half(L,r)is then: Given a string w, is there a string x of the same length as w such that wx is in the language L and after reading in w, the machine M is in the state r. we need the string "\\. The following two statements are equivalent: StringInStr ("the string to search", "string", 0, 1, 1, 11). Note: Just to be clear, R is far from an ideal platform for processing text. elements are compared using. The first 68 characters is the known string. Regular languages. A series of checks will be performed on the e-mail address but no actual e-mail is sent. public int LongestCommonSubstring ( string str1 , string str2 , out string sequence ) { sequence = string. The most basic regular expression consists of a single literal character, such as a. String Concatenation in R. To demonstrate this, first create a Regex for the pattern you want to search for, in this case, a sequence of one or more numeric characters:. This is fast, but approximate. The mode) is a simplified version of a real-world ground-water system that includes: D Understanding of a site, D Conceptualization, D Site data, D Computer code, D Results, D and Interpretation of the results The model of the site allows our understanding of the site to be quantified. character to a character string if possible. FindString returns a string holding the text of the leftmost match in s of the regular expression. This is an instantiation of the class template that uses as the character type, with its default and types (see for more info on the template). There are calculations like TRIM, which allow you to remove and leading spaces from a String, as an FYI. So, how do I detect if the string contain chinese word?. If there are no leading digits, a string converts to zero. The parameter is any valid parameter (%1 %2 %G) but it must contain a Full Path (not a pathname) The variable is %PATH% or any other variable that contains one or more Paths or pathnames separated by semicolons ; If nothing is found by the search, then this will return an empty string (NULL). In bash, ksh or zsh:. Problem; Solution. The split delimiters can be a character or an array of characters or an array of strings. How to deal with data set harmonization in R Hi everybody, I have a huge data set (from different locations) that I have to harmonized and d rwehrens BatchCorrMetabolomics: doBC results in NA. Garrett Grolemund. Retrieving Rows That Satisfy a Condition. Discuss how to create vectors of numeric, logical and character string data types. [^\\/]+ would find 1 or more occurrences of sub-strings that do not contain forward or backward slash. It contains advanced statistical routines not yet available in other packages. If it is zero, it will returns all the strings matching regex. Examples from command line:. LittleThings - The most popular collection of feel good stories & videos, delicious recipes and awesome DIY projects. The parameter is any valid parameter (%1 %2 %G) but it must contain a Full Path (not a pathname) The variable is %PATH% or any other variable that contains one or more Paths or pathnames separated by semicolons ; If nothing is found by the search, then this will return an empty string (NULL). R may not be as rich and diverse as other. I'd like to know how could I find all files whose extension can be. ok is FALSE , values of table once matched are excluded from the search for subsequent matches. This data is owned by the RWCString and may not be deleted or changed. It can be combined with r, e. C always contains one more element than matches contains. Take a look at the boy_names vector, it's long, so use head() to see the first few elements. In this case, grep uses the needle as a regular expression and compares it against haystack according to the. In particular I want to check the content in the column TrackingPixel. VBA code to delete row if cell contains string value example will help us to delete rows if cell contains specific word, text or value from excel worksheet. answer is r". Facebook is showing information to help you better understand the purpose of a Page. String replaceAll(String regex, String replacement): It replaces all the substrings that fits the given regular expression with the replacement String. Note that after a substring R is erased, the remaining substring becomes separated, i. 15 Easy Solutions To Your Data Frame Problems In R Discover how to create a data frame in R, change column and row names, access values, attach data frames, apply functions and much more. 1 Anthony S. The class template basic_string stores and manipulates sequences of char-like objects, which are non-array objects of trivial standard-layout type. A series of checks will be performed on the e-mail address but no actual e-mail is sent. a vector is either all numbers, or all strings, or all logical values, etc. It includes concatenating two strings, extract portion of text from a string, extract word from a string, making text uppercase or lowercase, replacing text with the other text. The class of an object that holds character strings in R is "character". The default interpretation is a regular expression, as described in stringi::stringi-search-regex. Additionally, they lag behind the string operations in other programming languages, so that some things that are easy to do in languages like Ruby or Python are rather hard to do in R. Follows the logic of simple SQL or basic commands. In this post, I will provide an introduction to the functionality R offers for converting strings to dates. we need the string "\\. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. A 'u' prefix allows you to write a unicode string literal (Python has lots of other unicode support features -- see the docs below). Similarly, you can construct a string by enclosing some characters in quotation marks. I was recently presented with the need to filter out certain rows in my dataset based upon them containing the desired strings. This book will teach you how to do data science with R: You’ll learn how to get your data into R, get it into the most useful structure, transform it, visualise it and model it. indexOf() string. A TSSMGR data set consists of one or more commands which direct the time series store manager module to create, modify, or destroy labels of individual data sets in the TSS. The variables may contain numeric values, but if they are defined as type string, there are very few things you can do to analyze the data. Notice that the substring function has a default setting for the third argument. If we reorder the first string as , it no longer contains the subsequence due to ordering. Nice post; very helpful. 2019 will be a great year with respect to video, by way of lots more giant unique emits visiting for a. Method 2: Extract number only from text strings with VBA code. You can earn a commission for sales leads that you send to us by joining our affiliate program. As our main string contains the sub-string 'sample' therefore in operator returned True. This is inspired by an example from the Dylan language reference, one of the languages that inspired the S4 object system. In addition, an empty string can match nothing, not even an exact match to an empty string. This is usually written n P k. Homework 3 Languages and Regular Expressions 1 CS 341 Homework 3 Languages and Regular Expressions 1. Object Orientation¶. Python has had awesome string formatters for many years but the documentation on them is far too theoretic and technical. the subset operator ensures # that the first array contains all the elements in the second array in the same # order consecutively. Hi all, is there any function to find some words in a character-string? For example suppose the string is : "gdfsa-sdhchc-88", now I want to find whether this string contains "sdhch". If any element of x or split is declared to be in UTF-8 (see Encoding ), all non-ASCII character strings in the result will be in UTF-8 and have their encoding declared as UTF-8. RegEx Module Python has a built-in package called re , which can be used to work with Regular Expressions. For now, we will just think of an expression as a string. Constructs an instance of the String class. Any value greater or equal than the string length (including string::npos) means that the entire string is searched. RuneError, it returns the first instance of any invalid UTF-8 byte sequence. CalendarAlerts. TF = contains(str,pattern) returns 1 (true) if str contains the specified pattern, and returns 0 (false) otherwise. My question is, how to get the string as "rapid\rjson" after parsing? Following is the code snippet and the output: Code:. character string containing a regular expression (or character string for fixed = TRUE) to be matched in the given character vector. The "r" can be lowercase (r) or uppercase (R) and must be placed immediately preceding the first quote mark. Get unstuck. You can also use hasLength to determine if String is empty in Java or not. You cannot get means, you cannot do a regression, you cannot do an ANOVA, etc… Sometimes the dataset contains numerical values that are stored as strings. The optionnal which output argument gives the index of first string of needle found. The string length cannot be changed using substr. VBA Use InStr to determine if a string contains a substring Example Const baseString As String = "Foo Bar" Dim containsBar As Boolean 'Check if baseString contains "bar" (case insensitive) containsBar = InStr(1, baseString, "bar", vbTextCompare) > 0 'containsBar = True 'Check if baseString contains bar (case insensitive) containsBar = InStr(1. If r is utf8. A string template expression starts with a dollar sign $. This is the website for “R for Data Science”. This is useful if you want to delete entire lines in a search-and-replace in a text editor, or collect entire lines in an information retrieval tool. The R programming syntax is extremely easy to learn, even for users with no previous programming experience. I have a string, which contains "\n" or "\r" or "\t" Can any one tell how to remove these charecters from my string? Thanks Avinash [^o)]. Declaration. deprecated since version %2$s! Use %3$s instead. A String object is a sequential collection of System. My OS is: SunOS test 5. Projects hosted on Google Code remain available in the Google Code Archive. case = FALSE , fixed = FALSE ). So, how do I detect if the string contain chinese word?. A "raw" string literal is prefixed by an 'r' and passes all the chars through without special treatment of backslashes, so r'x x' evaluates to the length-4 string 'x x'. character to a character string if possible. Each record contains numeric fields with a packed-decimal (COMP-3) format. for example string str = "aaa-832204-ccc"; I need to check if position 2 after the first dash (-) contains 832204. Facebook is showing information to help you better understand the purpose of a Page. To find the length of a String in R, use nchar() function. In SPSS, recoding categorical string variables to numeric codes and converting blank strings to missing values can be done automatically using Automatic Recode. This tutorial explains some of the most useful string or character functions in R. String concatenation is a rather basic function - but my particular programming reflexes did not help me figure out how to do this in R. The contains method returns true if and only if this string contains the specified sequence of char values. Cheat Sheet Updated: 09/16 * Matches at least 0 times + Matches at least 1 time ? Matches at most 1 time; optional string {n} Matches exactly n times. Original post was “I have a cell that contains text such as: “Work Order: 85234 Jobsite KH Adapters” OR THIS “(22) Cartridges – 16 x 25 Work Order: 83727” orComplete Reading. Double square brackets can be used to enclose literal strings which traverse several lines. Useful communication is useful because of what it does not contain. get values from string using strsplit and/or substring in R Tag: string , r The below string character, contains information that i want to use and assign to variables. by comparing only bytes), using fixed(). Does a table contain a value Value. character if it is not already one. The Server response-header field contains information about the software used by the origin server to handle the request. For example, we wish to test if the String "The quick brown fox" contains the substring "brown". For the extraction functions, x or text will be converted to a character vector by as. Then, print the number of tokens, followed by each token on a new line. Let's develop a fuller example. It’s also because R has it’s own way to write maths (not LaTeX or something I’m familiar with). Check if string has all alphabets or numbers. The contains method returns true if and only if this string contains the specified sequence of char values. Program to check if a string contains any special character - GeeksforGeeks. For a string in L 1, every occurrence of a 1, except possibly the last one. Python Forums on Bytes. An exception of type System. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: