Python Chunks

With it, it is possible to call Python and use Python libraries within an R session, or define Python chunks in R markdown. 6 has many new cool features, like format strings, a secrets module, file system. Use Python's NLTK suite of libraries to maximize your Natural Language Processing capabilities. ] Suppose you want to divide a Python list into sublists of approximately equal size. A standard MIDI file is composed of "chunks". In addition, I recommend Jeremy Jones’ article Interactive Debugging in Python in O’Reilly’s Python DevCenter. “Python Tricks” started out as a short series of Python code screenshots that I shared on Twitter for a week —. Python Exercises, Practice and Solution: Write a Python program to convert a list of characters into a string. List comprehensions is BIG in Python and having worked with a few of them I can see why. 6 has many new cool features, like format strings, a secrets module, file system. def chunk_ranges(items: int, chunks: int) -> List[Tuple[int, int]]: """ Splits the items into chunks defined by begining (inclusive) and end (exclusive) indices. This repository is a work in progress, and the expected release timeline is “before PyCon 2020”. I have Survival Guide and Decidedly Vanilla (although the latter is on hiatus). It’s always better to write tasks like these in a way that allows working with data chunks. 7, Python 3. """ FileSplitter - Simple Python file split/concat module. fromYAML(), which loads a Chunk out of a YAML string. How to use chunk in a sentence. Chinking is a lot like chunking, it is basically a way for you to remove a chunk from a chunk. The function is called split, and it returns a list as the result (you really don't want to a Python array for this one). Spacy is written in cython language, (C extension of Python designed to give C like performance to the python program). all work as expected. I use it almost everyday to read urls or make POST requests. The extension makes VS Code an excellent IDE, and works on any operating system with a variety of Python interpreters. The Python shell will look like the following when the chunks are downloading:. • Binding a variable in Python means setting a name to hold a reference to some object. This enters the exciting domain of distributed computing. It works with both Python 2 and 3. The python engine is based on the reticulate package (Ushey, Allaire, and Tang 2019), which makes it possible to execute all Python code chunks in the same Python session. WAV is based on the Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF), and made of chunks of data. Python’s built-in iteration support to the rescue! Generators, iterators, iterables. Compute short-time energy of every. The following are code examples for showing how to use util. Suppose that I wish to chop up a list in python into equal-length pieces, is there an elegant way to do this? I don't want to try out the ordinary way of using an extra list and keeping a counter variable to cut the list at the right indices. Joel has both the Citadel and the Realm of Vasten. Concat existing chunks and recreate original file. It turns out that you can generate audio with nothing but the standard library of Python. Python List Comprehension. We've been using functions all day:. Syntax of Function. Objects have types. This repository is a work in progress, and the expected release timeline is “before PyCon 2020”. Python 2 does NOT work range() doesn't actually create the list; instead, it creates a range object with an iterator that produces the values until it reaches the limit If range() created the actual list, calling it with a value of 10^100 may not work, especially since a number as big as that may go over a regular computer's memory. • Assignment creates references, not copies • Names in Python do not have an intrinsic type. fp = open("a. Access datasets with Python using the Azure Machine Learning Python client library. Let’s take a quick look at the new features that are included in this release, and play around with it a little. Chunk the Text “Chunking the text” simply means breaking the text down into smaller parts. This tool is a python script that tries to fix problems in region files. Build real-world Artificial Intelligence applications with Python to intelligently interact with the world around you Artificial Intelligence is becoming increasingly relevant in the modern world where everything is driven by technology and data. Watch Now This tutorial has a related video course created by the Real Python team. skip ¶ Skip to the end of the chunk. Tip: build your own list in the IPython shell that is contained within the above DataCamp Light chunk!. This is the most comprehensive list of best Python blogs on the internet and I'm honoured to have you as part of this! I personally give you a high-five and want to thank you for your contribution to this world. x, range generates the entire sequence when called, while xrange is a generator - it produces values on demand, not. In case it hits EOF before reading anything, it will return empty string. I'll describe Python's generators and decorators, and finally, I'll show you Python's simple and powerful module system, along with an example of a real Python Web application. Splitting a list into even chunks. Now The file is 18GB large and my RAM is 32 GB bu. The first look up code fails for me in Python 3. With Python using NumPy and SciPy you can read, extract information, modify, display, create and save image data. if your talking raw chicken and not processed chicken nuggets or something like that and you dont cook its fine if it will in fact take it. Sometimes I want N lines of a file at a time, sometimes I'm feeding objects to systems that slow way down when they have too many objects loaded at once, etc. All the underlying chunks in the ChunkedArray of each column are concatenated into zero or one chunk. The Creation Time text keyword can be used for a user-supplied time (see the text chunk specification). you may need to do some carving to make sure the item is the right size(cut to the size of the rodent you feed it) and leave in some grissel and sinue but not the. import matplotlib. import jaydebeapi. The size of each chunk preserve_keys. There's no need to check. The Python shell will look like the following when the chunks are downloading:. PNG: Chunk by Chunk¶ The PNG specification defines 18 chunk types. Jump to: navigation, search. Chunking large text files with multiple Python processes (and Redis) redis rr = None def process_chunk(chunk. If so, you can use iterate over the second frame in chunks to do your join, and append the results to a file in a loop. Karolina Alexiou Karolina Alexiou is a software developer, passionate about building systems, learning new technologies, Python and DevOps. Quick look at the source showed that multiprocessing sends the iterable in chunks to the worker process while futures sends always only one entry of the iterable to the worker. Python Data Analysis Library¶ pandas is an open source, BSD-licensed library providing high-performance, easy-to-use data structures and data analysis tools for the Python programming language. if dependson is a numeric vector, it means the indices of chunk labels, e. Chunk options like echo, include, etc. fromDict()) a normal dict, making it easy to cleanly serialize them in other formats. The approach I used relies heavily on the itertools module. Unfortunately, I'm facing challenges during the process of writing the document and test Python code chunk. {# Comments like this work great for single lines of text, and don't show up in HTML} Are there any other methods of hiding JSON-T and HTML template code?. Furthermore, it avoids repetition and makes code reusable. Split in chunks. SQLAlchemy is a library that facilitates the communication between Python programs and databases. It's quite exciting :) I asked a question on Stack Overflow about generating "chunks" of sequence, which is an everyday thing in bioinformatics: a DNA seq -> groups of 3 nt per codon. This module can read and write files in both the new netCDF 4 and the old netCDF 3 format, and can create files that are readable by HDF5 clients. The supported boundaries are the subset of universal. For example, the math module contains the definition of a function called sqrt. ndarray or not. Why not make it feel a little bit more like home? So you know your way around Python? Great. toDict()) and from (chunkify(), Chunk. What is a function in Python? In Python, function is a group of related statements that perform a specific task. rdcc_nslots is the number of chunk slots in the cache for this entire file. I want to see data in real time while I’m developing this code, but I really don’t want to mess with GUI programming. First, we need to install the NLTK library that is the natural language toolkit for building Python programs to work with human language data and it also provides easy to use interface. Students can work on chunking texts with partners or on their own. List comprehensions is BIG in Python and having worked with a few of them I can see why. The rent takes a large chunk out of my monthly salary. Chunk options like echo, include, etc. You can quickly insert chunks like these into your file with. py The script copies the bounding box from the active chunk for all other chunks in the project. File split made easy for python programmers! A python module that can split files of any size into multiple chunks, with optimum use of memory and without compromising on performance. Imagine a simulator producing gigabytes of data per second. Just my 2 cents, I work on JuliaCall, which embeds julia in R and provides the functionality for RMarkdown document to have julia chunks. to_csv() mode should be set as 'a' to append chunk results to a single file; otherwise, only the last chunk will be saved. The script can be used to bring the chunks' coordinate system in accordance to the sides of the bounding box. “Python Tricks” started out as a short series of Python code screenshots that I shared on Twitter for a week —. If the optional lenient argument evaluates to True, checksum failures will raise warnings rather than exceptions. Pythonista, Gopher, and speaker from Berlin/Germany. Unfortunately there is not an immediate way of listening to the sound directly from python. Joel has both the Citadel and the Realm of Vasten. The PNG format also has its specification the ability to integrate a comment area chunk, compressed or not, which is usually unreadable without a dedicated software. The Database API (in this case the Oracle API) is one example. spaCy is a free open-source library for Natural Language Processing in Python. PNG: Chunk by Chunk¶ The PNG specification defines 18 chunk types. Python is an extremely readable and versatile programming language. Python List Comprehension. receive_data_chunk. Python: Parsing data in chunks/sections? As a curious side project I'm playing with mzXML data(an xml format for holding mass spec data). com Pandas DataCamp Learn Python for Data Science Interactively Series DataFrame 4 Index 7-5 3 d c b A one-dimensional labeled array a capable of holding any data type Index Columns A two-dimensional labeled data structure with columns. Also, learn how to process and use result set returned by SELECT Query. So I wonder how to upload files in chunks with the python SDK. 189+4 sentence examples: 1. 6, is planned to be released on Friday December 16th. Increase Test Coverage¶ Python development follows a practice that all semantic changes and additions to the language and stdlib are accompanied by appropriate unit tests. The module determines the splits based on the new line character in the file, therefore not writing incomplete lines to the file splits. We will split this string into chunks of length 3 using for loop. 2016, minor tweak on 22. Chunk the Text “Chunking the text” simply means breaking the text down into smaller parts. chunks_as_numpy (bool, optional) - Whether each chunk passed to the inference step should be a numpy. The task at hand, dividing lists into N-sized chunks is a widespread practice when there is a limit to the number of items your program can handle in a single request. Other times, teachers ask students to chunk the text. In LAMMS, "chunks" are collections of atoms, as defined by the compute chunk/atom command, which assigns each atom to a chunk ID (or to no chunk at all). So don't use them to read large files. 0 An instance of Application object can be accessed using PhotoScan. In this in-depth tutorial you'll learn how to build a socket server and client with Python. In this article, we will learn how to execute a PostgreSQL SELECT query from a Python application to fetch data from the database table using Psycopg2. The paragraph is the most basic block in a reST document. For this rundown, I wanted to take Visual Studio 2019 Community, install Python, and see how the language performs. “Python Tricks” started out as a short series of Python code screenshots that I shared on Twitter for a week —. Python 2 does NOT work range() doesn't actually create the list; instead, it creates a range object with an iterator that produces the values until it reaches the limit If range() created the actual list, calling it with a value of 10^100 may not work, especially since a number as big as that may go over a regular computer's memory. The easiest way to split list into equal sized chunks is to use a slice operator successively and shifting initial and final position by a fixed number. The array to work on size. NB: last partial update for OpenViBE 1. Chunking large text files with multiple Python processes (and Redis) redis rr = None def process_chunk(chunk. First, we need to install the NLTK library that is the natural language toolkit for building Python programs to work with human language data and it also provides easy to use interface. Chunk definition is - a short thick piece or lump (as of wood or coal). Python has a single player series alongside Hermitcraft and some modded projects. Python Class Chunks. About Ben & Jerry's. Yes, Python 3 can be faster than Python 2, but the developer really needs to work at it. You may find that chinking is your solution. Iterate through each chunk and write the chunks in the file until the chunks finished. Sometimes I want N lines of a file at a time, sometimes I'm feeding objects to systems that slow way down when they have too many objects loaded at once, etc. Combining two together in this handy little script(see below). He was appointed by Gaia (Mother Earth) to guard the oracle of Delphi, known as Pytho. Clearly we can’t put everything neatly into a Python list first and then start munching — we must process the information as it comes in. csv contains the index value that works in your example. Pweave is a scientific report generator and a literate programming tool for Python. How do you split a csv file into evenly sized chunks in Python? - 4956984-1. Source code:. if dependson is a numeric vector, it means the indices of chunk labels, e. python uses simple English keywords very often whereas other languages use punctuation. It's quite exciting :) I asked a question on Stack Overflow about generating "chunks" of sequence, which is an everyday thing in bioinformatics: a DNA seq -> groups of 3 nt per codon. IDはチャンクの種類を識別する4バイトの文字列です。 サイズフィールド(big-endianでエンコードされた32ビット値)は、8バイトのヘッダを含まないチャンクデータのサイズを示します。. Joel has both the Citadel and the Realm of Vasten. Modern computers are equipped with processors that allow fast parallel computation at several levels: Vector or array operations, which allow to execute similar operations simultaneously on a bunch of data, and parallel computing, which allows to distribute data chunks on several CPU cores and process them in parallel. Splitting and Joining Files Like most kids, mine spend a lot of time on the Internet. This has left chunks of the stdlib untested which is not a desirable situation to. process_chunk (lenient. Subtract the doubly-counted triples that appear at the split points as I use an overlap of three characters at each split. For loops can iterate over a sequence of numbers using the "range" and "xrange" functions. Tip: build your own list in the IPython shell that is contained within the above DataCamp Light chunk!. Since the number of desired sublists may not evenly divide the length of. Python is an object-oriented programming language created by Guido Rossum in 1989. I've been frustrated at some of the documentation and tutorials about Python. Python : split any file (binary) to different pieces and join them June 23, 2011 This python program takes an input file and then splits it into different smaller chunks. You can get the value of a single byte by using an index like an array, but the values can not be modified. In following example, a list with 12 elements is present. Working with Python in Visual Studio Code, using the Microsoft Python extension, is simple, fun, and productive. While Python 2. In this post, I describe a method that will help you when working with large CSV files in python. Working with Python in Visual Studio Code, using the Microsoft Python extension, is simple, fun, and productive. List after rsplit method: [‘The string split, a Python method’, ‘ for breaking strings’] You can see, the rsplit started breaking the string from the right side. Objects have types. We have set to 1024 bytes. Lists are a useful concept in Python and in many ways are similar to arrays in other programming languages. Imagine a simulator producing gigabytes of data per second. Everything works as expected when I need to convert my. Example 1: print a list of web technologies. Clearly we can't put everything neatly into a Python list first and then start munching — we must process the information as it comes in. Among the core principles of Python's way of doing things there is a rule about having high-level interfaces to APIs. This course is taught by Dr. The array to work on size. For example, the math module contains the definition of a function called sqrt. All the chunks that precede the IDAT chunk are read and either processed for metadata or discarded. Since chunks are all or nothing (reading a portion loads the entire chunk), larger chunks also increase the chance that you'll read data into memory you won't use. The size of each chunk preserve_keys. This repository is a work in progress, and the expected release timeline is “before PyCon 2020”. all work as expected. csv', chunksize=chunksize): process(chunk). All the chunks that precede the IDAT chunk are read and either processed for metadata or discarded. If the size argument is negative or omitted, read all data until the end of the chunk. Connecting Netezza server from Python Sample. Split a text/binary file into equal sized chunks and save them separately. For bugs related to all aspects of Mozilla's Release Engineering pipeline, including branded releases, continuous automation, release automation, tools, repos and hooks, machine issues, loaner machines, buildbot. The web server of Try It Online and the arenas (where user code is executed) are currently run on three separate servers. Python lets you cut a line up into chunks, which it will then automatically concatenate. map(f, c, s) is a simple method to realize data parallelism — given a function f, a collection c of data items, and chunk size s, f is applied in parallel to the. A time representation of the sound can be obtained by plotting the pressure values against the time axis. List after rsplit method: [‘The string split, a Python method’, ‘ for breaking strings’] You can see, the rsplit started breaking the string from the right side. Jane: I got so drunk last night. I blew chunks when I got home. We won't debate on which library is the best here, they all have their merits. Python is a popular, powerful, and versatile programming language; however, concurrency and parallelism in Python often seems to be a matter of debate. Here are some examples. Let’s take a quick look at the new features that are included in this release, and play around with it a little. There's no need to check. If the size argument is negative or omitted, read all data until the end of the chunk. In this post, I describe a method that will help you when working with large CSV files in python. About Ben & Jerry's. In order to do this with the subprocess library, one would execute following shell command:. Python - Chunks and Chinks - Chunking is the process of grouping similar words together based on the nature of the word. They can also identify certain phrases/chunks and named entities. On 31 okt 2007, at 21. ] Suppose you want to divide a Python list into sublists of approximately equal size. Lists are a useful concept in Python and in many ways are similar to arrays in other programming languages. It is ideally designed for rapid prototyping of complex applications. A lot of times when dealing with iterators, we also get a need to keep a count of iterations. The chunk-size field is a string of hex digits indicating the size of the chunk. As a first step, get familiar with the basic concepts of Oracle-Python connectivity. If you stick around and read through the rest of this article, I think you’ll come to the same conclusion I did years ago — Python is going to make an impact on your future, whether you realize it or not. Before start connecting you must make sure you can access the Netezza database and table from the machine where you are trying to run Java and or Python samples. This example starts a python child process, reads stdin for python commands, pipes them through to the python shell and runs the callback method with the resulting output. Thanks Michael, I'm using Jupyter to create slides for python course material at the moment but it's not as productive as R presentations. With this technique you can have each chunk in the stream be an image, and that gives you a cool video feed that runs in the browser!. Default is FALSE which will reindex the chunk numerically. Also, we’ll play the audio chunk just for a check. I’ve been intrigued by the concept of using computers to generate audio for a long time. Method 1: Using yield The yield keyword enables a function to comeback where it left off when it is called again. I recently suggested this method for emulating the Unix utility split in Python. PhotoScan Python Reference, Release 1. import jaydebeapi. Summary of. Chunk options like echo, include, etc. There is a script included in gensim that does just that, run:. Note that I am avoiding the use of the term "slice". Here is how we'd do it in C#. While debugging a python module I needed to remove sections of code for quick functionality testing. futures is an abstraction layer on top of Python's threading and multiprocessing modules that simplifies using them. When chunk_size is set to None and stream is set to False, all the data will be returned as a single chunk. See the Package overview for more detail about what's in the library. Imagine a simulator producing gigabytes of data per second. I've tried doing it manually by drag-and-drop or using "cut" in Notebad or Word and copying the clipboard into a new document, but it's painfully slow and tricky -- one twitch of the mouse and all the highlighting can disappear and I don't have the patience. Default is FALSE which will reindex the chunk numerically. What is the call stack used for in the Python virtual machine? Python creates a temporary variable with the same name, and the value of that variable exists only within the scope of the function. fromYAML(), which loads a Chunk out of a YAML string. Contents1 Types of File2 Opening a File3 Closing the File4 TextIOWrapper class5 Writing Data to the Text File6 Reading Data from a Text file7 Reading Large Files8 Appending Data to the Text File9 Working with files using the with statement10 Reading and Writing Binary Data So far in this course, we have been using variables. Python is highly readable and easily understandable. Splitting an audio file into chunks of a specified length. Now, I have divided the audio into chunks of 10 seconds each, since we want to find out whether a particular audio chunk contains a rise in the audio voice or not. If you are exchanging data frames, you can use the feather package for very high performance transfer of even large data frames between python and R. You may find that chinking is your solution. #compatibility PhotoScan Pro 1. I have several text files that are too large to manipulate via Word and want to break them into smaller chunks. chunks_as_numpy (bool, optional) – Whether each chunk passed to the inference step should be a numpy. The code below imports NumPy, creates an array, and prints the array. Also, we’ll play the audio chunk just for a check. In our main task, we set chunksize as 200,000, and it used 211. Unfortunately Python was in existence for a long time before the practice came into effect. Increase Test Coverage¶ Python development follows a practice that all semantic changes and additions to the language and stdlib are accompanied by appropriate unit tests. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. With files this large, reading the data into pandas directly can be difficult (or impossible) due to memory constrictions, especially if you’re working on a prosumer computer. Python dictionary type provides iterator interface where it can be consumed by for loops. The size of each chunk preserve_keys. $ sudo service nginx start. Pweave can capture the results and plots from data analysis and works well with NumPy, SciPy and matplotlib. 7 runtime App Engine does not support streaming responses where data is sent in incremental chunks to the client while a. As soon as it determines that all references to a given chunk of memory have been released, it deallocates the no-longer needed chunk. How to use Split in Python At some point, you may need to break a large string down into smaller chunks, or strings. According to the Python documentation it provides the developer with a high-level interface for asynchronously executing callables. Enumerate() method adds a counter to an iterable and returns it in a form of enumerate object. i feed chickens to my anaconda. Have each sub-process chunk its fragment into threes and count the triples. When chunk_size is set to None and stream is set to True, the data will be read as it arrives in whatever size of chunks are received. In the below example we define a grammar by which the chunk must be Home. These are- default, keyword, and arbitrary arguments. Let’s take a quick look at the new features that are included in this release, and play around with it a little. So I wonder how to upload files in chunks with the python SDK. Reading and Writing the Apache Parquet Format¶. Rmd file with Python code to a. Pweave can capture the results and plots from data analysis and works well with NumPy, SciPy and matplotlib. The first look up code fails for me in Python 3. ChunkParserI is an abstract interface -- it is not meant to be instantiated directly. 1 in Create Python apps using SQL Server on macOS. A good chunk of the CIE spaces, RGB, HSL/HSV, CMY/CMYK, and many more. The easiest way to split list into equal sized chunks is to use a slice operator successively and shifting initial and final position by a fixed number. The cache contains a simple array of pointers to chunks, which is called a hash table. If we want to make use of objects created in previous chunks, we usually have to write them to files (as side effects). With the recap of the Python lists fresh in mind, you can easily see that defining and creating lists in Python can be a tiresome job: typing in all the values separately can take quite some time and you can easily make mistakes. What it does-=====-1. This is an ongoing project, supported by Nuxeo. python中有一个chunk模块,他的类chunk. Python was created out of the slime and mud left after the great flood. Sometimes I want N lines of a file at a time, sometimes I'm feeding objects to systems that slow way down when they have too many objects loaded at once, etc. With this method, you could use the aggregation functions on a dataset that you cannot import in a DataFrame. It is still possible to do parallel processing in Python. I've been intrigued by the concept of using computers to generate audio for a long time. Pythonista, Gopher, and speaker from Berlin/Germany. Pweave is a scientific report generator and a literate programming tool for Python. Reading as a List. The chunk-size field is a string of hex digits indicating the size of the chunk. Modern computers are equipped with processors that allow fast parallel computation at several levels: Vector or array operations, which allow to execute similar operations simultaneously on a bunch of data, and parallel computing, which allows to distribute data chunks on several CPU cores and process them in parallel. They are extracted from open source Python projects. I know that it's possible to display metadata in the Image Editor, but I need to access this info from Python, eg. If the optional lenient argument evaluates to True, checksum failures will raise warnings rather than exceptions. Python eases the programmers' task by providing a built-in function enumerate() for this task. Numpy can in some settings turn the term IDs into floats, these will be converted back into integers in inference, which incurs a performance hit. As our program grows larger and larger, functions make it more organized and manageable. 189+4 sentence examples: 1. You can type the Python like you would in a Python file. First time programmer? Learn Python quickly. _dataset_fetcher. combine_chunks (self, MemoryPool memory_pool=None) ¶ Make a new table by combining the chunks this table has. The easiest way to split list into equal sized chunks is to use a slice operator successively and shifting initial and final position by a fixed number. Functions in Python Most programming languages provide ways of defining the computational equivalent of this. 1 in Create Python apps using SQL Server on macOS. Some features include: Support for a wide range of color spaces. With it, it is possible to call Python and use Python libraries within an R session, or define Python chunks in R markdown. Column 1 of the nasshead. List comprehensions is BIG in Python and having worked with a few of them I can see why. I have Survival Guide and Decidedly Vanilla (although the latter is on hiatus). Before that, what if you want to extract a chunk of more than one character, with known position and size? That's fairly easy and intuitive. Here is how we'd do it in C#. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: