Java Fast Json Schema Validator

Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts. It will detect any missing schemata and provide a button to add it to the list. First big problem here is that I don't have JSON Schema to validate JSON response. The Validator component performs bean validation of the message body using the Java Bean Validation API. Links: JSON Schema; JSON Validation Software ; 7. If you are using Jackson to unmarshal json to a list of map/pojo, you can now specify this by setting useList="true" or use the org. My validator builds LINQ Expression trees, which you can then compile. restassured json-schema-validator 2. Here is the example of Validate JSON Using Javascript. The Protocol Buffers specification is implemented in various languages: Java, C, Go, etc. You can find out more about Swagger at [http://swagger. If you need help creating your test objects, check out JSONSchema. Runscope JSON Schema v4 Validation - Test Resopnse. Use JSON Schema to create documentations for web APIs and check response data using a validator engine. Another JSON Schema Validator Latest release 6. parse() method) and display json-data as tree. Treat the schema definition as application code. Apache Johnzon. JSON Schema Core: The JSON Schema Core specification is where the terminology for a schema is defined. xml file below ins an instance of the records. org so that you can start adding markup to your web pages. This ensures that if validation has passed, the JSON instance is guaranteed to be in the expected format. Warning: this means that anomalous events like an unresolvable JSON Reference, or an invalid schema, are masked!. This recipe shows how to use the jsonschema Python library, which implements the JSON Schema specification, to easily validate your Python data. Handling complex JSON Schemas in Python. Home » Java » Jackson JSON Java Parser API Example Tutorial Jackson JSON Java Parser is very popular and used in Spring framework too. The JSON Schema is written within IETF draft which got expired in 2011. It is commonly used for transmitting data in web applications (e. JSON Schema Validation Libraries There are several validators currently available for different programming languages. Looking for recommendations from the swagger community. JSON Schema Validation Libraries. JSON was not designed to have such features, even though some of them are now trying to find their places in the JSON world, including JSONPath for querying, some tools for transformations, and json-schema for validation. Apache Maven is a software project management and comprehension tool. (8 replies) I know that several options exist to achieve this. Use JSON Schema to create documentations for web APIs and check response data using a validator engine. The code blocks are just test cases so you can verify the output and play with the examples. restassured json-schema-validator 2. The middleware which connects a user with the backend is nothing but RESTful Services. Supported schema formats. xml in order to download the dependency: com. Warning: this means that anomalous events like an unresolvable JSON Reference, or an invalid schema, are masked!. In this page you will learn about structures of JSON. To know in details, you can follow this link. Copy the students. A fast XML schema validator JAXP 1. You can match against schemas that exist in a local file or in an external URI. 22日(米国時間)、JSON Schemaの4つ目にして最新のドラフト版がIETFにおいて公開された。JSON SchemaはJSONのデータ構造そのものを規定するためのスキーマ。. Code can be retrieved at xml and java code. However, this requires significant time and effort to be allocated to schema development - a bit of a contradiction compared to JSON's promised simplicity. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is a way of representing data structures in a “human-readable” form that can be used to exchange information between two different applications. How much is this artifact used as a dependency in other Maven artifacts in Central repository and GitHub:. I successfully tested Camel Rest Service in json format. Developers are increasingly turning to JSON Schema to apply the benefits of data validation to JSON data exchanges. So, schema file myObject. Use this tool to validate the format of JSON. Good deal of the code is ported from dsljson, and jsonparser. A JSON Schema is a JSON document that describes the structure of the JSON data. This is because the Java library is using blocking code, which can't be used in a vertx module. This is a fork of JSON Schema Test Suite for Node. Hibernate types are great! Even if Hibernate comes with a great variety of types, even Java 1. Internally IsValid uses JSchemaValidatingReader to perform the JSON Schema validation. In the previous post, we introduced our new JSON editor in the CTP 2 release of Visual Studio 2013 Update2. I have a node server that imports json schema faker and another repo that has the schema definitions and Im using the foll. For example, the “type” keyword can be used to restrict an instance to an object, array, string, number, boolean, or null:. Now I need to extract some variables from the payload which I am doing using an extract variables policy. Confluent has a product for this. loads() method is used to validate JSON data. And check an XML against your Schema. 86K stars mongoose Fast and low overhead web framework, for Node. Of course, XML Schema is already very handy, as we can always easily create one in TIBCO Designer. If you get into syntactic trouble with either and want to know what the problem is, use the JSON lint web page to validate the JSON formatting. It's also possible to supply some settings, for example the JsonSchemaFactory that the matcher will use when validating the schema:. JSON is a popular data exchange format between browsers and web servers because the browsers can parse JSON into JavaScript objects natively. JSON Web Token (JWT) is a compact URL-safe means of representing claims to be transferred between two parties. XSD files are "XML Schemas" that describe the structure of a XML document. JSON or JavaScript Object Notation is a language-independent open data format that uses human-readable text to express data objects consisting of attribute-value pairs. The drawback of this built-in plugin is, if a schema is updated, it does not reflect on the fly for corresponding JSON document. The need for validation of JSON payload structures is an essential component of perimeter threat protection for JSON capable environments. Say we want our validation to always use the JSON schema version 4:. #/ - reason Missing property Validate a JSON Schema from the Command Line Another aspect of JSON validation is to check whether or not the JSON schema itself has valid syntax. We need to tell our schema loader what the base path for our schemas is. But there have been no schema for YAML such as RelaxNG or DTD. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is a standard text-based format for representing structured data based on JavaScript object syntax. Software used: jsonschema2pojo (source code generation), json-schema-validator (syntax checking). Warning: this means that anomalous events like an unresolvable JSON Reference, or an invalid schema, are masked!. Arrays are used to represent ordered sets of values, such as the following sequence of strings: In this section we specify array's main charasteristics and restrictions that may apply to them using a single JSON Schema document. JSON schema validators There are almost 30 validator implementations written for Java, Ruby, C, C++, Python, JavaScript Perl and other languages. We're the creators of MongoDB, the most popular database for modern apps, and MongoDB Atlas, the global cloud database on AWS, Azure, and GCP. The need for validation of JSON payload structures is an essential component of perimeter threat protection for JSON capable environments. An Online JSON Editor to help you create, view and edit your json with the help of a treeview to visualize your data. Here, I'm gonna briefly explain XML and demonstrate how to use Java to validate XML with a XML schema. Tagged: java, java-tutorial, spring, and validation. Parsing a large JSON file efficiently and easily – By: Bruno Dirkx, Team Leader Data Science, NGDATA When parsing a JSON file, or an XML file for that matter, you have two options. See Ajv and fast-json-stringify for more details. XML XSD validation is nice and straight forward,. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) pronounced as "Jason" is the de facto standard for data interchange on the web these days. 4, from Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1. Finally: Java JSON Schema validator; based on Jackson Ok here are some good news for Java developers who use (or might like to use) JSON, but are bothered by lack of data format validation options: Nicolas Vahlas has written the first Java JSON Schema validator , and it is available from Gitorious as project json-schema-validator. There's also a basic example without the jQuery Mobile interface elements. The route validation internally relies upon Ajv, which is a high-performance JSON schema. JSON takes over where XML left off. Online JSON Formatter and Online JSON Validator also provides tools to convert JSON to XML, JSON to CSV, JSON Editor, JSONLint and JSON Checker. validation package provides an API for XML documents validation. The enum is defined by Java as, An enum type is a special data type that enables for a variable to be a set of predefined constants. JSON data is formatted as a key & value pair and each key & value represent a properties name and value separated by the colon (:). CSVLint currently only supports validation of delimiter-separated values (dsv) files. JSON Schema is a popular vocabulary to describe the shape of JSON documents. haleby: Developer: Jayway. JSON Schema is a specification for a JSON-based format for defining the structure of JSON data. Validate your JSON data against a JSON schema. In this post I'll describe how to leverage those APIs during unmarshal and marshal operations. I know swagger 2. Evaluation of an infix expression that is fully parenthesized using stack in java. The json-to-object transformer moves the JSON encoded data to a List of Maps format. One of the things that because apparent was the lack of any grammar support for languages other than XML - yes you can use a mapping from JSON ->XML Schema but this would be less than pleasant for a JSON purist. by Child in School. java file to any location, say E: > java. But this way also raise up hard questions : I can't find Java classes that allow me to do this automatically. XML to JSON and JSON to XML converter online. json-schema (3) json-serialization (3) Scala macros for compile-time generation of safe and ultra-fast JSON codecs. This is a Heroku-based Java webapp which demonstrates usages of the following packages: json-schema-core. Elasticsearch is developed in Java and is released as open source under the terms of the Apache License. An optional reviver function can be provided to perform a transformation on the resulting object before it is returned. All the code on this page is available on github: View the source. This tool supports the syntax validation for the latest JSON schema draft v4. If you don’t have an existing application, Thunder also provides a sample main (or calling) program that can serve as the starting point to developing it. JSON Validator. JSON editor and validator Unique grid-style editor for JSON standard compliant JSON schema validator. JSON Formatter Online and JSON Validator Online work well in Windows, Mac, Linux, Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge and it's Free. Paste your schema and data in the appropriate text areas and press the Validate button. XMLSpy includes an enterprise-grade JSON Schema generator and graphical JSON schema editor that lets you create JSON Schemas, convert XSD to JSON Schema, generate JSON Schema, and even generate a JSON instance from a schema. Querying JSON records via Hive /* ---[ Opacity: A brief rant ]--- */ Despite the popularity of Hadoop and its ecosystem, I've found that much of it is frustratingly underdocumented or at best opaquely documented. Kwalify is a parser, schema validator, and data binding tool for YAML and JSON. To skip the overhead of loading JSON into a JObject/JArray, validating the JSON, and then deserializing the JSON into a class, JSchemaValidatingReader can be used with JsonSerializer to validate JSON while the object is being deserialized. JSON schema validator, which is designed to be fast and simple to use. Given an annotated Java. In this two-part series, you'll learn how to use JSON-Schema to validate data. Batch validation Use the validator engines to check thousands of XML or JSON documents. In case you have missed that journal then we would suggest you to have a look at "Easy way to convert JSON to Java POJO". It contains some simple validation helper methods and also brings in some auxiliary types to generate JSON Schemas from existing. The most basic schema is a blank JSON object, which constrains nothing, allows anything, and describes nothing: You can apply constraints on an instance by adding validation keywords to the schema. Open the JSON document and assign a schema. A JSON Schema validator implementation in Java which aims for correctness and performance, in that order What this is Motivation. Array Schemas. An Introduction to JSON Schema Written by Kashyap on April 5, 2014; tagged under json , api , ruby JSON, or JavaScript Object Notation has become the most widely used serialization and transport mechanism for information across various web-services. If it's expected that the producer and consumers will not be in sync with the event schemas, there needs to be "source of truth" for the schema tracking, both for producers and consumers. JSON is a text-based, human-readable format for representing simple data structures and associative arrays (called objects). JSON Schema is used to validate the structure and data types of a piece of JSON, similar to XML Schema for XML. The viewer works offline, free and open source. 2, “Functions That Create JSON Values”) as well as by casting values of other types to the JSON type using CAST(value AS JSON) (see Converting between JSON and non-JSON values). xml to same location E: > java. An object is an unordered collection of zero or more name/value pairs. - Clear, human- and machine-readable documentation. java json schema Java implementation of a JSON Schema loader and validator. json schema file. We will leverage JAXBSource (which implements javax. 0 and to have approximately the same scope, but also to fix bugs and make whatever improvements we can, consistent with the constraints on scope and compatibility. Learn Java by Examples. XML to JSON and JSON to XML converter online. GenSON's core function is to take JSON objects and generate schemas that describe them, but it is unique in its ability to merge schemas. But this way also raise up hard questions : I can't find Java classes that allow me to do this automatically. This page provides Java source code for Validator. Validate Json Schema Java >>>CLICK HERE<<< The problem is that you load the JSON then turn it into a schema. You can visit this website to learn more about this check. It's like Newtonsoft's Schema library. For information on creating JSON schemas to validate your data, there is a good introduction to JSON Schema fundamentals underway at Understanding JSON Schema The Validator Interface ¶ jsonschema defines an (informal) interface that all validator classes should adhere to. Kwalify is a parser, schema validator, and data binding tool for YAML and JSON. …For the h plus sport website,…we'll use a Java script validator called. Jeddict is an open source Jakarta EE application development platform that accelerates developers productivity and simplifies development tasks of creating complex entity relationship models. So how to use it? The are many online resources to learn json-schema itself, such as the main site at json-schema. This page has moved. 2019-09-13T20:18:38+00:00 2019-09-13T20:12:46+00:00. isSuccess() returns false. loads() method is used to validate JSON data. Validation, traversal and transformation of RDF graphs. JSON provides two structured type – objects and arrays. org classes, fill in the form and generate JSON+LD Schema. Hi- I'm currently trying to convert already existing JSON (not generated by avro) to avro and am wondering if there is some generic way to do this (maybe an avro. This JavaScript library is the official reference implementation for JSON5 parsing and serialization libraries. The schema validator does not know where the referenced files are located. So, schema file myObject. JWT and Scalability, Clustered Timers, DB Schema Validation, JSON-B Configuration, Bulk Data and JAX-RS, Docker and Maven, Closing Streams -- or Questions for 54th airhacks. To be able to generate the JSON schema properly, the Java class should have getters and setters defined for its members. Validate Json Schema Java >>>CLICK HERE<<< The problem is that you load the JSON then turn it into a schema. In this page you will learn about structures of JSON. However, this requires significant time and effort to be allocated to schema development – a bit of a contradiction compared to JSON’s promised simplicity. loads() json. SODA for REST is usable from any programming language, as long as it allows HTTP requests to be made (e. Jsonschemavalidator. Moreover, in this Avro Schema, we will discuss the Schema declaration and Schema resolution. 0 got the error at [1]. We explore JSON Schema from a practical point of view. Treat the schema definition as application code. If you are not automatically redirected, please go to. JSON Schema is a standard (currently in draft) which provides a coherent schema by which to validate a JSON "item" against. 5 onwards installed on your machine and classpaths are configured. oneOf(validationChains[, message]) validationChains: an array of validation chains created with check() or any of its variations, or an array of arrays containing validation chains. JSON Validator. The conversion of the JSON objects into tests within your test framework of choice is still the job of the validator implementor. The next several paragraphs describe how MySQL. The list of alternatives was updated May 2019. I have a node server that imports json schema faker and another repo that has the schema definitions and Im using the foll. Runscope JSON Schema v4 Validation - Test Resopnse. Confluent has a product for this. However, this requires significant time and effort to be allocated to schema development - a bit of a contradiction compared to JSON's promised simplicity. JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) is a standard text-based format for representing structured data based on JavaScript object syntax. When you're dealing with complex and structured data, you need to determine whether the data is valid or not. Others Python and Java tools tested GitHub: json-schema-validator python-json-schema-validator Seems working Need further test. Clone via HTTPS Clone with Git or checkout with SVN using the repository's web address. Altova XMLSpy 2019r3 - Graphical JSON Schema editor for draft-06 and draft-7, as well as validation of JSON files based on JSON Schema; Liquid XML Studio 2016 - Graphical JSON schema editor for draft 4, context sensitive intellisense for JSON documents. In the RAP project, reading and writing JSON are critical operations, since the server processes and creates JSON messages for a large number of clients at a high rate. In case you have missed that journal then we would suggest you to have a look at "Easy way to convert JSON to Java POJO". Automatically generate form markup from a JSON Schema. Here is the example of Validate JSON Using Javascript. Make sure you have JDK 1. Type in or paste your YAML in the editor below and view the errors and JSON representation instantly. A JSON validator is a program that takes JSON data and, with a provided schema, will ensure that the provided JSON is structured in the way defined by the schema. JSON Schema Core: The JSON Schema Core specification is where the terminology for a schema is defined. 下面3个是java的相关实现: json-schema-validator supports draft 4 includes draft-04 hype-schema syntax support (LGPLv3) json-schema (implementation based on the org. But there have been no schema for YAML such as RelaxNG or DTD. JSONスキーマ仕様をベースにしたJSONのバリデータに関しては、Java以外のプログラミング言語用を含め、json-schema. A collection of name/value pairs. json-schema/json-schema-validator-1. About JSON Schema Validator. JSON Schema is a grammar language for defining the structure, content, and (to some extent) semantics of JSON objects. For additional info on the json schema validation support in REST Assured visit the Usage Guide. Bali, RELAX NG validator compiler. JSON and XML Schema are very different, and both have varied areas of applicability. The conversion of the JSON objects into tests within your test framework of choice is still the job of the validator implementor. JSON supports two widely used (amongst programming languages) data structures. the schema is first analyzed for syntax errors; it also aborts the generation process if the schema is not a draft v3 schema, since jsonschema2pojo does not support draft v4 yet; a more complete demonstration of jsonschema2pojo is available here. 5 onwards installed on your machine and classpaths are configured. In this page you will learn about structures of JSON. Validating input is a good programming practice than spending times to trying to guard each line of codes against all the way the input goes wrong. Visual Studio 2013 - Auto-completion and tooltips based on JSON schema draft 3 and draft 4. I am using the java version of json-schema-validator, version is 2. JSON Schema is a popular vocabulary to describe the shape of JSON documents. java file to any location, say E: > java. But this way also raise up hard questions : I can't find Java classes that allow me to do this automatically. chai-json-schema is a Chai Assertion Library plugin to assert values against json-schema. It is based on the already successful JSON format and provides a way to help JSON data interoperate at Web-scale. A JSON Schema is a specification for JSON related design for defining structure of JSON data. How much is this artifact used as a dependency in other Maven artifacts in Central repository and GitHub:. JSON Web Token (JWT) is a compact URL-safe means of representing claims to be transferred between two parties. It uses the last release of JSON schema (draft-07). pdf), Text File (. JSON Schema Language is a platform-independent way describe the shape of your data, and every implementation produces the exact same validation errors. At India Dreamin 2017, I got an opportunity to. 1 (in two parts) is a W3C Recommendation. It contains some simple validation helper methods and also brings in some auxiliary types to generate JSON Schemas from existing. jConfigMap A threadsafe Java (JVM) configuration map framework using regular expressions over map keys. The validator will report fatal errors, non-fatal errors and warnings. It is built as a generic and easily extensible JSON-schema processor/iterator that you can use to build all sorts of tools that use JSON-schema: UI generators, templates, etc. Please guide me, how to validate the incoming json string against the json schema in java. Free Online JSON Validator (JSON Schema) Validates that a JSON document is syntactically valid, and that it conforms to the definition described by a JSON Schema. org, wikipedia, google In JSON, they take on these forms. isSuccess() returns false. Published July 2013 JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a lightweight, text-based, language-independent data exchange format that is easy for humans and machines to read and write. This is because the Java library is using blocking code, which can't be used in a vertx module. Products include an advanced graphical XML editor, XSD editor, JSON editor and WSDL editor, an XML Code Generator (supporting C#, C++, Java, Visual Basic), a. Hi- I'm currently trying to convert already existing JSON (not generated by avro) to avro and am wondering if there is some generic way to do this (maybe an avro. It doesn't validate the schema of the Avro events. JSON Schema is a repository for the JSON Schema specification, reference schemas and a CommonJS implementation of JSON Schema (not the only JavaScript implementation of JSON Schema, JSV is another excellent JavaScript validator). This document also defines a set of keywords that can be used to specify validations for a JSON API. For ex­ample, BSON has a Date type and a BinData type. If a schema passes the schema compatibility check, Pulsar producer automatically updates this schema to the topic it produces by default. json-schema/json-schema-validator-1. XSD files are "XML Schemas" that describe the structure of a XML document. Take a copy of the JSON returned by your api and paste it into the JSON schema generator. The code is available as "public domain", meaning that it is completely free to use, without any restrictions at all. If you would like to see a map of the world showing the location of many maintainers, take a look at the World Map of Debian Developers. 0 Write Your Test. New support for JSON Schema-based validation also allows intelligent editing and validation of JSON instance documents in the. In this article we'll look into creating an awesome JSON schema editor using WPF. Here, I'm gonna briefly explain XML and demonstrate how to use Java to validate XML with a XML schema. In the previous post, we introduced our new JSON editor in the CTP 2 release of Visual Studio 2013 Update2. Again we need to generate a schema first. json-schema-validator - A JSON Schema. Validate your JSON data against a JSON schema. This implementation is meant to be purely server-side if Java is your language of choice. We want to keep API developers up to date with the best OpenAPI tooling around, and help direct folks to high quality modern tooling, instead of being stuck on old v2-based rubbish. JSON Schema is a grammar language for defining the structure, content, and (to some extent) semantics of JSON objects. ###Referencing in a Json schema In a Json schema it is possible to reference to a schema defined by an URI. JSON schema is well considered and standardised making it an excellent choice for JavaScript object validation. If you get into syntactic trouble with either and want to know what the problem is, use the JSON lint web page to validate the JSON formatting. The validation process verify that an XML document is an instance of a specified XML schema file or XSD file. activerecord_json_validator 3. JSONスキーマ仕様をベースにしたJSONのバリデータに関しては、Java以外のプログラミング言語用を含め、json-schema. An existing schema language specification for JSON named JSON Schema uses concepts similar as XSD to provide JSON structure definition. The json-schema-validator module of REST-assured gives us the power to perform fine-grained validation by defining our own custom configuration rules. Having this document defined in a standard notation means that it is parseable by a machine, which means the schema can be used to validate messages, manage api migrations and provide type information and documentation. JSON Schema is also often used to validate client-submitted data especially for JSON based web services. To know in details, you can follow this link. It is popular with Java developers, and is available on GitHub here. Love SEO, SaaS, #webperf, WordPress, Java. Looking for recommendations from the swagger community. The validation process verify that an XML document is an instance of a specified XML schema file or XSD file. We will be using JSON Schema and later configure everything in newman so that we can run the test cases from command line. The assignment is saved and restored for the active document. You can write the following custom validator to check if the required form fields are filled. An online, interactive JSON Schema validator. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. Copy and paste, directly type, or input a URL in the editor above and let JSONLint tidy and validate your messy JSON code. Read the full license here. The code (using SAX parser) to validate an XML file using a given external XSD. JSON Schema Language is a platform-independent way describe the shape of your data, and every implementation produces the exact same validation errors. simple to encode or decode JSON text. Threads and Synchronization. Supports JSON Schema Draft 3, Draft 4, Draft 6 and Draft 7. A JSON Schema validator implementation in Java which aims for correctness and performance, in that order What this is Motivation. An Introduction to JSON Schema Written by Kashyap on April 5, 2014; tagged under json , api , ruby JSON, or JavaScript Object Notation has become the most widely used serialization and transport mechanism for information across various web-services. java-json-tools/json-schema-validator. JSON Schema allows you to validate the contents of a JSON file and to specify constraints. This tutorial uses the open source Jackson 2. But there have been no schema for YAML such as RelaxNG or DTD. MongoDB supports draft 4 of JSON Schema, including core specification and validation specification, with some differences. (8 replies) I know that several options exist to achieve this. parse() method) and display json-data as tree. The json-schema-validator module in REST Assured builds on top of the excellent json-schema-validator project by Francis Galiegue et al. But it's faster and smaller. This module does not support the natively supported schemes from the underlying Java library. JSON Validator. are all supported, and most modern languages have an. Open the JSON document and assign a schema. This quickie will briefly introduce you to JSON schema, explaining what you can gain (or not) by validating your JSON documents, and how to do so using the popular Jackson library. It is a simple format that is easier to comprehend than XML. 2 - Updated Jul 14, 2019 - 5. Home; JSON Tutorials; JSON Schema Validator. There's a "baby and bathwater" issue here. Built directly on Spring Boot's innovative approach to enterprise Java, Spring Cloud simplifies distributed, microservice-style architecture by implementing proven patterns to bring resilience, reliability, and coordination to your microservices. In the pipeline, we can use the new NXSD Translation activity. This document also defines a set of keywords that can be used to specify validations for a JSON API. Validate a Response. You can match against schemas that exist in a local file or in an external URI. These are the new features we will focus on in this blog post, as well as the ability to build business validation rules. class file, you can generate a schema from this and output a. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: