How To Make A Square Spiral In Python Turtle

This World object is represented by the JFrame object (without the turtle) shown in Figure 1. We've developed a suite of premium Outlook features for people with advanced email and calendar needs. Turtle Academy is a free online software and very easy to use. hey everyone, This class is a part of python complete course from basics to upto creating games by your own. Turtle Graphics Examples. It is common in the Python community to refer to a distribution using the term “package”. PostgreSQL. Speed = 10 Default If colour = "random" then GraphicsWindow. Are you looking for a unique & premium phone case? Case-Mate is the design leader in stylish cases for your phone, watch bands, and phone accessories. If you’ve studied geometry, you know that there are 360. If they are not on your install on your machine, you can grab them from this site - download turledemo32. 2D Translation Triangle Program Using C Programming. forward(100) turt. Screen() wn. Looking for the ideal Gifts? Come check out our giant selection of T-Shirts, Mugs, Tote Bags, Stickers and More. And although we recommend you always use these templates to ensure proper design compatibility on all devices, if necessary, you can also create a custom. Softschools. # Square spiral size = 0 for i in range(15): and move turtle # pendown() # make size 50 pixels bigger. Shop Burberry. So what might have been 4 straight lines becomes 4 curved lines. Python actually has a built-in Turtle provided by the turtle module. It can be:. 4 user(s) are browsing this forum. 100 fun, interactive, and instructional videos will teach your kids to: Code your own apps and games in Python for Mac, PC, or Linux. You can use the A/D converter built into a sound card like a SoundBlaster 16, but the sound quality will not be very good. In Emacs, create a Python program in a file called spiral. exitonclick. And according to an analysis of 48 separate studies,. When you're finished, click Submit and Next to move on. The range function now does what xrange does in Python 2. Please report if you are facing any issue on this page. Determine if the order of numbers is ascending (getting larger in value) or descending (becoming smaller in value). Square Toe (140) Stacked Heel (1681) Stain Resistant (227) Steel Toe (131) Stiletto (373) Straight (1) Studded (427) Studs (16) Sun Protection (1) Super Heroes (1) Supination (1) Surfing (4) Tall (918) Taps (3) Tassel (91) Tennis (20) The Animal Print Trend Croc (21) The Animal Print Trend Snake (36) The Breast Cancer Research Foundation (1) The Fall Trend Guide Cozy (25) Therapeutic (90). Write a non-fruitful function draw_poly(t, sides, side_length) which makes a turtle draw a regular polygon. Now, if the original triangle is rotated, all the triangles on the picture will also be rotated. py # fun with turtle, a Python module # draw 100. In Emacs, create a Python program in a file called spiral. Using simple movement commands, we can draw shapes using the python turtle library. I haven't got that far yet with that chapter, but I halfway plan on including a turtle graphics solve-a-maze example, which would/will be an example of conditionals with the turtle as a kind of actor making decisions. The REPEAT Loop. Microsoft Small Basic. Stick the Velcro loops on the other end on the jeans fabric. The turtle is very useful for many, many thing such as making a triangle or if you wish to get more complicated, you can make a star or a pitch fork with multiple turtles. py that uses turtle graphics to draw a square spiral. translate() and. Erdelac recently suggested that I read this story after a brief discussion of the greatness of dark fiction founding father Ambrose Bierce, I'm publishing "Oil of Dog" (originally published in 1911) at The Cosmicomicon. Make common things easy, and rare things possible; Consistency. (default) window The turtle can move past the edges of the screen, unbounded. Shop online for Electronics, Computers, Clothing, Shoes, Toys, Books, DVDs, Sporting Goods, Beauty & more. To make it more useful we'll also give it a scale for the square. Here is a gallery of some of our favorite patterns made with the Turtle object in Small Basic! This first Turtle pattern comes from litdev: Turtle. 6: Adding Circle, MoveTo, Turn and Screen!. They can be found inside blocks that normally contain Super Mushrooms if the player is already in their Super form, and obtaining one transforms the player into their Fire form, allowing them to throw fireballs. left" movement codes into the loop to make the turtle move. We've already seen how to call some of the turtle methods like Right and Forward. Free Shipping; Every Item, Every Day. Turtle Programs: Programs specifically designed for Turtles. OpenTechSchool is a community initiative to provide programming and other tech-related workshops to women and their friends of all genders. Jose Antonio, Mexico. Often cnc machinists has to complete such components which require a full circle machining sometimes inside full circle sometimes you have to program an. (No spam, ever!) Subscribe (Free!) These coloring pages are easy to download, print, and color! Just download one, open it in any image editor and print. We work every day to bring you discounts on new products across our entire store. Therefore, the internal loops will not start from 1 but from the number to which the previous loop got + 1. Paint the Night is a nighttime parade that currently runs at Hong Kong Disneyland and Disney California Adventure, and formerly at Disneyland. In 1971, during a coffee break when I was doing postdoctoral research on fungal diseases, I happened to find a pad of triangular graph paper and revisited the “square. Sourcing this file adds ~/tutorials/workspace to your ROS_PACKAGE_PATH. Turtle graphics is a popular way for introducing programming to kids. Images listed here are available to use in your code in this trinket. Shapes in Python How to make SVG shapes in python. Now you need to make the turtle race by moving a random number of steps at a time. com Nullege - Search engine for Python source code Snipt. Turtle() # you can rename the turtle if you want rightAngle(alex) if __name__ == '__main__': # main function to have a turtle draw a picture draw() wn. The following is the code snippet that draws the grid. In an effort to save endangered wildlife we participate in more than 80 Species Survival Plans that ensure healthy, genetically diverse Zoo populations. The Blue Rectangular Canton (referred To As The "union") Has Width 25 W And Height 713 H. Start the project by making an empty file spiral. This is a fantastic puzzle for hand solving. A golden spiral is a type of logarithmic spiral (that grows by the same ratio each revolution. ) To prevent that, just put turtle. The Carthesian coordinates of mathematical rose, a rose shaped sinusoid, can be expressed by x = cos(kθ)cos(θ) and y = cos(kθ)sin(θ). Move(10) Turtle. That is clicking on the window won't exit and close the window because it comes after an infinite while True. turtle — Turtle graphics. :size determines the perimeter of the square you want to create. Spring into action. The second statement in Listing 1 instantiates an object of the Turtle class, passing a reference to the World object as a parameter. Welcome to the Amazon. #Program to draw spiral circles in Python Turtle import turtle t = turtle. On the next line we have a shapesize function call with three parameters. refuel() refuels the Turtle so that it can move. py files or via the Python command line interpreter. Expand your Outlook. right(25), and it rotates in-place 25 degrees clockwise. The best rule to follow? According to Square Up, three to eight feet is the perfect amount of distance to have between you and your colleagues. An introduction to Python suitable for a wide range of students. Call this function instead of the lines you used to draw the square in step 1 above. To make it easy for you just follow simple steps and the result is marvelous. digDown() will make the Turtle dig down. There was a whole program in A Turtle Bar Chart to create a bar chart with specific data. This assignment will give you a chance to work on functions and loops and to learn new turtle functions. com has one of the most organized stock website designs for professionals to gain quick access and make selections fast. The most beautiful things on earth. Why men? Because men’s forearms are considered to be one of their most sexiest part. left(123) What does the following do? ADD COLOR turtle. Even without having studied the syntax of writing code, the above statement should make a fair amount of sense. py to test your understanding of how these module functions work. If shaving at home, our Clear Shave Gel can used straight away with no prior preparation as it does contain humectants which plump the hair up to make it easier to shave. Shapes in Python How to make SVG shapes in python. Search, Browse and Discover the best how to videos across the web using the largest how to video index on the web. Everyone knows that slouching is not only bad for their back, but could also make them feel small and unimportant. rt(90) turtle. If you need to do the job again on another document, paragraph or worksheet you have to run the macro again. Beautiful Python: A Simple ASCII Art Generator from Images Python A few years ago, when I was in college, I attended a workshop organized by FOSSEE and it was in this workshop that I met "Python" and fell in love with her at first sight. I also guide them in doing their final year projects. The game is an arcade game and it has very simple logic, which is why it is an ideal example to demonstrate how to build games with Pygame. One more thing to add. Have fun exploring!!! It get's more complex at you scroll down! Text art , ascii art , japanese text emoticons , emojis , unicode drawings , twitch spam , chat copypastas. Colours can also have code associated with them. Make a 7x7 square out of 7 dominoes, 10 1-2 kites, and 5 1-3 kites. Python: Using Turtles for Drawing Circles August 6, 2012 Python Python Mike I am currently working on a book review for a college course Python book that uses the Python turtle module and Tkinter to help teach the Python programming language. :size determines the perimeter of the square you want to create. It imports the turtle module so you can do the turtle instructions. It is less common, but not unheard of, for a creature with a high power and low toughness to be referred to as having a "small butt". If we skip this step, there’ll be no turtle to control. This means that regular shapes with 3 sides or more will follow this pattern. Create Account | Sign In. Red Square Alternating Colors Spiral Triangle Learn the basics of programming by drawing shapes on your screen with Turtle Graphics!. All I wanted to do was write a script that drew a Fibonacci spiral on the screen using numbers. Like the approach I took in Extending Existing Classes, I've written a class (TurtleGraphicsWindow) which sits on top of TG's graphics support code. py that uses turtle graphics to draw a square spiral. Students write code for Square Spriral by adding lines 16 to 25 to their Square program. Turtle Academy is a free online software and very easy to use. Slouching in Your Seat. Also, solve our Python Basic Exercise for Beginners and Python Quiz For Beginners to practice Python essential skills. Since the turtle window belongs to Python, it goes away as well. Using a Python recipe? Installing ActivePython is the easiest way to run your project. exitonclick. Notice that this drawing has something in common with the simpler square spiral shape: there are four sets of circle spirals just like there were four sides to our square spiral. Click on the "Home" icon. On the RPi, in your home folder, use the file manager to make or find a suitable folder (called club, say). Turtle Graphics Examples. A python is a constrictor snake, like the boa constrictor snake. In an interpreted language, rather than doing all the translation at once, the compiler translates. Here's some of the longer code samples used in "Python for Kids". Easy Tutor says. In this challenge we will use Python Turtle to draw regular polygons including: An equilateral triangle A square A pentagon An hexagon etc. One, your while goes six, not five, steps. # Square spiral size = 0 for i in range(15): and move turtle # pendown() # make size 50 pixels bigger. Novica unites you with more than 2,000 extraordinary master artists around the world. It can grow to be almost 33 feet long. Even though the turtle just drew a square, he didn't learn how to draw a square. Trinket Premium Plans Designed with individual learners and educators in mind, premium plans offer more power and convenience. Examples, articles, software. bashrc , but remember that this will persist in your. This is a beginner weave. Python | Plotting Fibonacci spiral fractal using Turtle What is Fractal Geometry? Fractal geometry is a special form of graphical representation of mathematical functions or set of numbers generated by a mathematical function. Welcome to Artist! First off, let's try to make a simple square using the turn right block and move forward block. I used a calculator and entered 2 for x1 and 4 for y1, difference is -2 squared which is 4. In 1971, during a coffee break when I was doing postdoctoral research on fungal diseases, I happened to find a pad of triangular graph paper and revisited the “square. This makes sense. Wild pigs are highly adaptable and capable of fending for themselves, making them capable of existing in a variety of habitats. py - any other name is fine!. We will use a variable a , with an initial value 5 which is then increased by 2 with each iteration of the loop. right(25), and it rotates in-place 25 degrees clockwise. Learn the basics of coding, from variables to loops and functions, with interactive, engaging apps. With the recent release of the new Mint 19. C C++ C++14 C# Java Perl PHP Python Python 3 Scala HTML & JS. The Pentagram in the Ancient World. Writing a script to generate the numbers was a breeze but having absolutely zero background in drawing anything in Python I don't know what to do next. This page was last edited on 9 August 2019, at 18:23. Indeed, √3 is a recurring value throughout triangular and hexagonal geometry—for instance, the diagonal distance between two opposing vertices of a cube also equals √3 (compare to the diagonal width of a square, which is √2, for reasons similar to those outlined above). REPCOUNT is always equal to the number of times the loop has been run. This website and its content is subject to our Terms and Conditions. The neck line can be a little trickier. IPFS stays true to the original vision of an open, flat web by delivering technology to make that vision a reality. Students run. Program Listing: Turtle. Now you need to make the turtle race by moving a random number of steps at a time. In addition to the angie = turtle. This is an exhaustive list of the Small Basic games coming from our community of developers! Small Basic Games Action Basketball – by NaochanON Basketball Science – by Nonki Takahashi Block Smasher V2 (info) by Behnam Azizi Brick Wall (info) – by Stendec Catch Game – by NaochanON Click the Button – by Timo Sö Darts. Make your garden beautiful. circle(10+i, 45) Output of the above program-Explanation of the above code. I haven't seen a Python program before knowing Python. Therefore, as of this time, the constructors for the Turtle class require an incoming parameter that is either a reference to a Picture object or aWorld object. A Python module to create Ulam Spirals. This World object is represented by the JFrame object (without the turtle) shown in Figure 1. Description. Turtle graphics is a popular way for introducing programming to kids. Examples, articles, software. Matthew Pessoni, Gemini Production Group, Inc. You can write this program using For Loop in Python and while loop in Python. Speed = 9 For j = 1 To 20 For i = 1 To sides Turtle. All reptile canvas prints ship within 48 hours, include a 30-day money-back guarantee, and arrive ready-to-hang with pre-attached hanging wire, mounting hooks, and nails. In four_turtles. Put Interactive Python Anywhere on the Web. You can indeed see in the margin how we operated, namely that we added the first number to the second, namely the 1 to the 2, and the second to the third, and the third to the fourth and the fourth to the fifth, and thus one after another until we added the tenth to the eleventh,. Since the turtle window belongs to Python, it goes away as well. Speed = 10 For i = 1 To 600 Turtle. The Masonic Trowel to spread the cement of brotherly love and affection, that cement which unites us into one sacred band or society of brothers, among whom no contention should ever exist, but that noble emulation of who can best work or best agree. Square Braid – This braid has a distinctly square shape, with a plaited design on each of the 4 sides. Language Translator at bottom of page Dream Symbol Dictionary A more comprehensive dictionary can be found at the following link for the the new Encyclopedia of Dream Interpreting, including over 5000 dream symbols from over 3500 dreamers across 140+ countries. Have fun exploring!!! It get's more complex at you scroll down! Text art , ascii art , japanese text emoticons , emojis , unicode drawings , twitch spam , chat copypastas. Our reptile canvas art is stretched on 1. Sourcing this file adds ~/tutorials/workspace to your ROS_PACKAGE_PATH. The Hong Kong version premiered on September 11, 2014, and the Disneyland version debuted on May 22, 2015, as part of the park's 60th anniversary Diamond. For Python training, our top recommendation is DataCamp. Now you need to make the turtle race by moving a random number of steps at a time. See the first example in Chapter 4 (Functions) — that function can be used with any turtle, and for any size square. Today's web is addicted to the backbone IPFS powers the creation of diversely resilient networks that enable persistent availability — with or without Internet backbone connectivity. 0, since it would add 10. That is clicking on the window won't exit and close the window because it comes after an infinite while True. We work every day to bring you discounts on new products across our entire store. Place your robot on a smooth, flat, open surface. Use random numbers to make 100 circles with Python's turtle module. Examples of lines, circle, rectangle, and path. Monty Python has entertained audiences for 50 years this year, with their Flying Circus first airing in 1969 and since then have become beloved by audiences all across the globe. Shop for Forms, Recordkeeping & Money Handling in Office Products on Amazon. Square:4 sides,90 degree turn on python w/ Turtle. Polygons, Circles, Stars and Stuff 169 TO CIRCLE HOME CS REPEAT 360 [FD 200 POINT BK 200 RT 1] END The procedure starts from HOME with a clear screen. When you see those, have your trainers use Reflect on themselves, and re-apply it whenever it wears off. From cool t-shirts to custom mugs to DIY invitations, Zazzle is the place to unleash your creative side. Here we are going to use a circle, but it could also be a triangle or a square. We have surprising things for every occasion, for your home, for your kids and much more. Wonder How To is your guide to free how to videos on the Web. Instead, we provide an alternative Turtle, which we call the Tk Turtle. From the soil moisture project, we know that the moisture is low when the reading is roughly less than 500. Assume the innermost square is 20 units per side, and each successive square is 20 units bigger, per side, than the one inside it. In 1971, during a coffee break when I was doing postdoctoral research on fungal diseases, I happened to find a pad of triangular graph paper and revisited the “square. Since we are moving the turtle in a straight line, we just need the x component, and, depending on the user's input we decide if the movement is forwards or backwards. Right-click and open it with IDLE. Bo Atkinson studies the geometry of a solid of revolution of an Archimedean spiral. Tip: Wordpad, TextEdit, Notepad, and Word are not suitable code editors. Can you name the best 2,000 movies of the 20th century (that's before the year 2000) grouped, by rank, in tens? Test your knowledge on this movies quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Turtle Graphics in a Java Program. When we wrote our first square using the turtle, we ended up writing the same thing over and over a few times. In the civilizations that followed, it held various meanings, usually astronomical and religious. Turtle # create tess and set some attributes tess. Click here for sample student pictures. Afterward, try your hand at creating snowflakes, too, or any fractals beyond the problems below! The Python Turtle Library. You guys are awesome!!! I really loved this page of “20 Beautiful Rainbow Loom Bracelets” cause I gave up loom bands ages ago and now I’m back into them and I forgot the name of one of the loom bands!!!!:( And I really wanted to make it again…And guess what? It was here on this webpage!. Give it the command turtle. In order to draw a square we need to be able to make the Turtle draw a line, turn right and draw another line and continue this until all four sides are finished. Join us in celebrating the International Hour of Code by learning how to draw with code! We'll learn some basic Python coding skills to make art with Raspberry Pi computers. I wrote the code myself with Code. If your invention is fundamentally two-dimensional, or made of trivially interlocking 2d parts, AutoCAD might be the right thing. There is always an easy way to find out how to print a regular polygon. There are some really cool demos for turtle python. Drawing such a shape entails delving into a more advanced programming function known as a "for" loop. Easy Tutor author of Program to draw a Chess Board is from United States. Scratch is a free programming language and online community where you can create your own interactive stories, games, and animations. Try making a hexagon (6 sides). Check out our 6000+ word dream dictionary, fascinating discussion forums, and other dreaming topics. Make a DrawginPanel of size 300 by 200. So what might have been 4 straight lines becomes 4 curved lines. Have fun! Construction The layout of the Sacks spiral aligns the squares (1,4,9,16, etc) along a straight line heading east from the center. 5: Running Tree. Turtle graphics were added to the Logo language by Seymour Papert in the late 1960s to support Papert's version of the turtle robot, a simple robot controlled from the user's workstation that is designed to carry out the drawing functions assigned to it using a small retractable pen set into or attached to the robot's body. Classify the type of triangle (right triangle, isosceles, equilateral, acute, obtuse - see any good geometry book. Watch the program run and move the hedgehog to the end of the maze. Architecture, design, and stories to inspire the space around you. com Books homepage helps you explore Earth's Biggest Bookstore without ever leaving the comfort of your couch. Though generally not loud enough to annoy the neighbors, a wheeking guinea pig can be surprisingly loud. uk Book Store featuring critically acclaimed books, new releases, recommendations from our editorial team and the best deals in books. If you would like to alter the shape, you can divide 360 by the number of sides of the shape you want, and that gives you the. (That is because Python exits when your turtle has finished moving. An introduction to Python suitable for a wide range of students. Free Shipping; Every Item, Every Day. An interactive math lesson about completing a numerical sequence. Browse beautiful home design ideas, useful how-to articles and easy-to-follow recipes to help you make your best home. Published Dec 02, 2015Last updated Mar 07, "Python", "Developer"] Create a single string from all the elements in. Using a Python recipe? Installing ActivePython is the easiest way to run your project. In four_turtles. Turtle Academy makes it surprisingly easy to start creating amazing shapes using the LOGO language Here are some examples for easy and fun programming to sd setpencolor "8 repeat 900 [ fd 365 rt 743] end sd. I want to draw a Fibonacci spiral. GetRandomColor Else. If the number is 5 we have a pentagon, with 6 a hexagon. Turn the power on. OpenTechSchool is a community initiative to provide programming and other tech-related workshops to women and their friends of all genders. The Hertz frequencies fall between the cracks of a piano keyboard so the scale is not a familiar one in the Western world. Get ahead with developing your own and your students skills to learn programming. Drawing a Square. Are you looking for a unique & premium phone case? Case-Mate is the design leader in stylish cases for your phone, watch bands, and phone accessories. You must use at least one turtle. program : TLQ846. Si Melocotón de Princesse utilise sa capacité spéciale Petey. Think about the other methods shown in the summary above. Hello Friends, I am Free Lance Tutor, who helped student in completing their homework. You can draw any shape, for example a triangle or a square by using the "pen down", "turn" and "move" commands. Shop the widest selection of Betsey Johnson clothes & accessories at BetseyJohnson. Open Kwrite (or any text editing program) 2. Introduction¶. It is easy, and the loop itself only needs a few lines of code. If you make no mistake, you have already defined a new command square(). Problems Archives. Using Python Turtle, create a spiral design using circles that incorporates the loop variable and turning. Create your free Platform account to download our ready-to-use ActivePython or customize Python with any packages you require. How big should the angle in the lt be?. You can nicely solve this problem by first drawing the polygon with the nameless (global) turtle and then by putting a cloned turtle at each corner. Examples of lines, circle, rectangle, and path. Have fun exploring!!! It get's more complex at you scroll down! Text art , ascii art , japanese text emoticons , emojis , unicode drawings , twitch spam , chat copypastas. Python has a simple pen drawing library called turtle. (default) window The turtle can move past the edges of the screen, unbounded. Emoji code points and example glyphs using web fonts, sprites and native OS representation of Emoji characters. Defining a function makes it easier for us to create a "Stamp" for a shape. Creating a bar chart is a useful idea in general. Our Family of Sites: San Diego Zoo; Safari Park; Institute; Wildlife Conservancy; Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms of Use State Disclosures Accessibility Statement. I am new to python but am using loops to try to draw them. The second statement in Listing 1 instantiates an object of the Turtle class, passing a reference to the World object as a parameter. The following code makes a pictogram for 0-9. This is an excerpt from the Turtle module documentation from python. If you're really struggling you can always get in contact. However, we find this module a bit confusing to use, particularly for a beginner. 9: Add SetX, SetY, Square and Rect! Introduction to Logo Turtle LogoTurtle is currently the FIRST and only one Chrome Extension for… Turtle Programming v0. The latter value refers to the number of loops the turtle will make: for i in range(x): Replace "x" with a large number to achieve a big spiral or a small number to achieve a smaller spiral. We've developed a suite of premium Outlook features for people with advanced email and calendar needs. the number is 4 we have a square. Basically, right now my program is to recursively scan a directory and is supposed to output each directory/file it finds to a text widget one at a time. I used a calculator and entered 2 for x1 and 4 for y1, difference is -2 squared which is 4. Turtle graphics is a popular way for introducing programming to kids. It is also a creative assignment that you can have some fun with. Turtle drawing commands are not effected by the show() and hide() commands, which control if the turtle icon is displayed or not. He also has a blog where he talks about Django. Here is his tragic real-life story. Spring into action. 2 we’ve decided to visit how best to install it for a perfect set up. Conway's Game of Life with Python Turtle Step 1. For Pygame and other graphics work, it’s helpful to have color constants that hold the color RGB values. Shop Burberry. Start decorating. If you would like to tackle the 10 most recently published problems then go to Recent problems. Monty Python has entertained audiences for 50 years this year, with their Flying Circus first airing in 1969 and since then have become beloved by audiences all across the globe. Share suggestions, ask questions, and connect with other users and top contributors in the Google Search community forum. Create a square with each side a different color. Let the artist in you come out by utilizing the wide range of colors that the turtle can draw with. Show off your favorite photos and videos to the world, securely and privately show content to your friends and family, or blog the photos and videos you take with a cameraphone. What I am a little unsure about is the sides in the spiral. The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. A program is an ordered series of steps we give to a computer. Check out our 6000+ word dream dictionary, fascinating discussion forums, and other dreaming topics. the number is 4 we have a square. Learn how to code a square spirograph using Python code. However, sometimes, the filmmakers just don't have the budget to make a somewhat convincing monster suit, or an animatronic puppet, or stop-motion, or even a crappily animated CGI monster. All I wanted to do was write a script that drew a Fibonacci spiral on the screen using numbers. Lesson 2: Basic Loops. white square view: u+25a2: white square with rounded corners view: u+25a3: white square containing black small square view: u+25a4: square with horizontal fill view: u+25a5: square with vertical fill view: u+25a6: square with orthogonal crosshatch fill view: u+25a7: square with upper left to lower right fill view: u+25a8: square with upper. The turtle should draw a rectangular spiral with the help of a while loop. Please suggest improvements to the code where you see fit, particularly in regards to: Algorithm: Is there a faster/more elegant way to generate the matrix?. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: