Adfs Oauth2 Token

Azure Sample: In the sample, an existing web app with its own way of signing in users adds the ability to call an Azure AD protected web API using OAuth 2. However, sometimes we were faced with a situation where we want to customize our web service to use another or existing database such as ASP. To configure OAuth2 authorization, you need to --Create and configure an authorization profile. 0 flows designed for web, browser-based and native / mobile applications. 0 client role is subdivided into a set of client types and profiles. 0 server in the world. In OAuth, the token is designed to be opaque to the client, but in the context of a user authentication, the client needs to be able to derive some information from the token. Im trying to configure ADFS to work as a Claim Provider (I suppose AD will be the identity provider in this case). This update enables Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS) 3. Revoke both the access token and the refresh token. 0 specification. 0 with oAuth2. The access token returned by OpenID Connect is a signed JWT token (JSON Web Token) containing claims about the user. Desktop applications must use this method (and cannot use GET oauth / authenticate). 0, on Windows Server 2012 R2 and below, use SAML Configure federation using OpenID (ADFS 4. In this blog post, I want to clarify just how you can make your OAuth 2. 0 - with template web API - gist:2f274f5ca2d93a6f37e06ef610259db2. If the access token expires, the application using username-password OAuth flow must reauthenticate the user. MyClient resource The resource server that the Client wants an access token to, as registered in the Identifier. ADFS : OAuth token timeout This is for Server 2016 - ADFS 4. For example, the specifications allow for a SAML grant in which a client exchanges a SAML assertion for an OAuth2 token, which can then be used as if it came from any other source. NET, and the current user's credentials, fun right?. Since I am receiving an access token, but no refresh token, and since ADFS currently only implements OAuth's code flow, my guess is the ADFS team chose not to return refresh tokens. Last we looked at using the ASP. com\/adfs","authorization_endpoint":"https:\/\/authenticate. Leveraging the Microsoft Graph API with PowerShell and OAuth 2. 0 - with template web API - gist:2f274f5ca2d93a6f37e06ef610259db2. 0 Specifications. The basics of the attached samples are as follows: It is using Azure AD to provide the authentication service and therefore an OAuth2 access token to a UAP client. Vittorio's sample uses OAuth. 0 scopes provide a way to limit the amount of access that is granted to an access token. net) Web API, using ADFS 3. This guide is useful if you would need to automatically generate tokens for use in Postman and this has to be generated automatically before every test batch run. The way ADFS implementes this is basically having the proxy generate one token as stamp of approval, and letting the traffic through to the backend ADFS server letting it add another token so you have a net of two tokens that are bundled together. AD FS in Windows Server 2016 [AD FS 2016] enables you to add industry standard OpenID Connect and OAuth 2. id_token: A JWT token used to represent the identity of the user. There is no "proxy-token" or "edge-token" present in the response, so we can't get passed WAP. Laravel wrapper around OAuth 2 libraries for ADFS. But, for an organization where Office365 is integrated with ADFS, I am unable to get the token. Validates that the token was issued for the correct application. But when we receive the token form ADFS we only get a bearer-type "access-token", no combo token. While the word "token" when used with AD FS is generally referencing the AD FS. NET Web API with Existing User Database. I am getting an authentication code, but when I try to request an authentication token I only get http response code 400. At least one of these fields must be specified, but both may also appear (for compatibility with older clients). Get the OAuth2 token using the SAML assertion. Learn about refresh tokens and how they fit in the modern web. For this setup, we used ADFS 4. 0 as an authentication method with an access bearer token issued. Refresh Tokens. Community Edition Enterprise Edition. One of this days I had this really fun challenge that I need to tackle. cs line 86) and the OWIN middleware returns an OAuth access token to the Client app. Yes, the OneLogin SAML toolkits work with AD FS. Authorization Code Flow With Pkce. The 'aud' or audience claim of the id_token matches the client ID of the native or server application. 0 specifically designed for attribute release and authentication. Select details tab and click on Copy to File. JSON Web Token (JWT) is a compact URL-safe means of representing claims to be transferred between two parties. Since an access token is like a special type of API key, the most likely place to put it is the authorization header. An attacker can fix a token for the victim that gets authorized. 0 is a simple identity layer on top of the OAuth 2. ADFS auth plugin for flive boilerplate. We are new to Boomi and have a requirement whereby a cloud POS system will be making requests to our Boomi integration tier and they use OAuth for their authentication, so we need Boomi to support it. NET Web API Web Application, like me, you may not know how to read back the Claims from the Bearer Token so that you can use them in your. They have many different applications with mixed SharePoint farms. 0's lightweight OAuth2 implementation. AD FS Help makes it easy for you to navigate even complex scenarios using the guided troubleshooting walkthroughs and diagnostic tools. 0 flows designed for web, browser-based and native / mobile applications. 0 access token from our API will receive a signed token which contains claims for an authenticated Resource Owner (User) and this access token is intended to certain (Audience) as well. by John Last Updated August 29, 2019 01:26 AM - source. Using Postman for the Authorisation Code Grant on Server 2016 (ADFS 4. Intellectual Property Rights Notice for Open Specifications Documentation. 0 Form Post Response Mode (Jones, M. If your not familiar with JWT tokens or ADFS itself, it might take some tries to get all settings right. This enables customers to adopt Azure Active Directory without modifying on-premises User Principal Names (UPNs). Refresh Access Token The OAM OAuth 2. Modern authentication is OAuth token-based authentication with user name and password. These are the Token-signing and Token-decrypting certificates. This is the explicit flow of authentication with Office365 from the web application. Compiled library that adds support for your site visitors to login with their OpenIDs by just dropping. For the basics, see OAuth 2 overview. So make sure you set the redirect URI on ADFS to this. In other words a user can ask new tokens for this RP, or for other RP's, and he will not have to prove who he is until the WebSSOLifetime expires the ADFS token. For example, at the UW, we federate our AAD to ADFS, which in turn is federated to Shibboleth. Hi there, I found your page for your miniOrange SSO solution. If you are using a self-singed certificate please make sure that:. AD FS applications when using AD FS in Windows Server 2016. com/FederationMetadata/2007-06/FederationMetadata. If you are interested, please go through Application pool identities. Joe, I was looking at your blog post on using Xamarin. Access token is obtained in the same way as id token as. With OAuth2, you don’t get that out of the box, and instead, the Resource Server needs to make an additional round trip to validate the token with the Authorization Server. Fortunately, OAuth comes with an awesome idea called refresh tokens. I then generate an Access Token by GETing:. Fortunately, you can get a token by sending your credentials to the Edge OAuth2 service. 0 as an authentication method with an access bearer token issued. Single log-out for OpenID Connect with AD FS. Access tokens eventually expire; however some grants respond with a refresh token which enables the client to refresh the access token. This guide is useful if you would need to automatically generate tokens for use in Postman and this has to be generated automatically before every test batch run. Use PowerShell to make Rest API calls using JSON & OAuth If you come from an IT Pro background like me, I have probably scared you off already by mentioning terms like Rest API, RegEx, JSON & OAuth. ADFS uses multiple certificates: a service communication certificate, a Token-signing and Token-decrypting certificate. You can implement your APIs to enforce any scope or combination of scopes you wish. Hi! I trying to secure an ASP. 0 Oct 2012 OAuth 2. AD FS issues a token to Azure AD before Azure AD issues the final token for Azure DRS. Technical Documentation. 0 core spec doesn't define a specific method of how the resource server should verify access tokens, just mentions that it requires coordination between the resource and authorization servers. Click the Account tab. 0 service provider support was added as part of IBM WebSphere Application Server versions 7. The protocol relies entirely. So, because of that, I ended up doing this simulation in the following sequence of steps and tools: Register client application to ADFS using PowerShell. I used Kerberos as my authentication protocol, and was issued a SAML 2. The Web API is places behind a Web Application Proxy (WAP) configured with pre-auth, claims aware and OAuth2. After successful authentication, the AD FS server creates a combo token that contains the OAuth token and the edge token and sends the token to the app. WSO2 Identity Server provides two ways to validate an issued OAuth2 Token: Invoke the OAuth Introspection Endpoint; OAuth Token Validation Using SOAP Service. This guide is useful if you would need to automatically generate tokens for use in Postman and this has to be generated automatically before every test batch run. We’ll request a JWT token, C/- ADFS 3. The client credential grant type gets access token by posting a client id and client secret to a dedicated token endpoint. Getting Group Claims With ADFS 4. Module 9: Securing REST APIs with API Management: • Looks at features of the Azure API Management gateway that. The Client app stores the OAuth access token in a cookie and redirects the user agent to the Main view (ClientController. 0’s lightweight OAuth2 implementation. Access tokens carry the necessary information to access a. When both are specified, they. The iss claim in AAD contains the tenant ID. The access token request must contain the 'code' parameter which specifies the previously issued authorization code. A Refresh Token allows the application to ask Auth0 to issue a new Access Token or ID Token without having to re-authenticate the user. It "describes how to use MAC Tokens in HTTP requests to access OAuth 2. In other words a user can ask new tokens for this RP, or for other RP's, and he will not have to prove who he is until the WebSSOLifetime expires the ADFS token. SID (Security Identifier) of computer object on-prem. For the basics, see OAuth 2 overview. During a recent project, we began developing an application that would use the WebAPI. Signature. TokenEndpoint - The ADFS OAuth endpoint with the "/token" suffix. 1 client_id is used by the spring-security-oauth framework to ensure an authorization code, which is required to obtain an access token for the authorization_code flow is being issued to a registered client. We'll request a JWT token, C/- ADFS 3. Hope this gives some clue. Similar to API keys, you may find OAuth access tokens all over the place: in query string, headers, and elsewhere. , Twitter, to get authentication & authorization, which results in an access token. Replace this with your ADFS website address. , third-party sign-in service) MUST NOT use the implicit flow without additional security mechanisms that would enable the client to determine if the access token was issued. access_token_issuer issue. Posts about MVC 6 written by Oren Beeri. A confidential client is an application that is capable of keeping a client password confidential to the world. 0 flow, the authorization URL to obtain an access token and any resource scopes requires by your protected API endpoints. 0, on Windows Server 2016 and up, use OpenID. WS-Federation metadata https://identityserver. Access tokens carry the necessary information to access a. It is possible to request a new token using a refresh token that is provided at the same time as the authorization token. Clicking on Next below the setup instructions, you can transition to step 2 – use the Claims X-Ray. 11/17/2017; 3 minutes to read; In this article Overview. Step [3]: The enterprise application (SP) wants to access an OAuth2 protected API resource through WSO2 API Manager. As part of establishing a relationship with your ADFS server, you must specify a redirect URL that the ADFS server can use to return ID tokens to Kubectl Plugin for OIDC. Oauth relying party keyword after analyzing the system lists the list of keywords related and the list of websites with related content, in addition you can see which keywords most interested customers on the this website. Many enterprises still use Microsoft Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS) 3. The attacker then uses the fixated token. RFC 7522 OAuth SAML Assertion Profiles May 2015 3. A workaround is required to handle the issuer vs. 0 to enable OAuth2 based authentication. This will work as long as the Refresh Token has not been revoked. 0 only supports a subset of these including Authentication Code flow. 0) with different kinds of applications and the question always comes up regarding how a 3rd party API validates the access token. NET 2012 ASP. Note 2: This post focuses on NTLM authentication, the default authentication mechanism for AD FS 2. Oauth 2 token for Active Directory accounts. 0, on Windows Server 2016 and up, use OpenID. Zoom works with Exchange ADFS 2. 0 detected that one or more certificates in AD FS configuration database need to be updated manually because they are expired, or will expire soon. Single Sign On service (SSO) for Also is a cloud based service. I am using the java code below. The Authorisation server compares the provided SAML hash with the one stored in the cache to authenticate the user (Startup. The client requests the protected resource, authenticating using the Access Token. Release Notes. If you are using a self-singed certificate please make sure that:. JSON Web Token (JWT) is a compact URL-safe means of representing claims to be transferred between two parties. 0 authentication flow. How to Get an OAuth 2. Step 4: Add Support for OAuth 2. OAuth 2 and OpenID Connect are fundamental to securing your APIs. The federation service is running on all AD FS nodes. The AWS Security Token Service (STS) is a web service that enables you to request temporary, limited-privilege credentials for AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) users or for users that you authenticate (federated users). The methods for obtaining an access token are called flows. Ad per Microsoft KB for ADFS, resource URL must be included in every request Sent to ADFS Server, While retrieving token from ADFS, ADFS will return additional claims as defined in ADFS Settings. js client with Active Directory Federation Services for authentication using OAUTH2. 0 IdentityServer4. The OAuth 2. For more information on the specification see Token Endpoint. The backend will take care of obtaining an access_code from the Adfs server. The iss claim in AAD contains the tenant ID. Laravel wrapper around OAuth 2 libraries for ADFS. In case AD FS uses a token decrypting certificate that was also renewed recently, do the same check as well. 0 Oct 2012 OAuth 2. 0 and OpenID Connect / OAuth 2. It will be just a bit painful ;). AD FS Scenarios for Developers. ADFS issues access tokens and refresh tokens in the JWT (JSON Web Token) format in response to successful authorization requests using the OAuth 2. In this step, fetch an OAuth2 token using the ADFS assertion response. Note 2: This post focuses on NTLM authentication, the default authentication mechanism for AD FS 2. The new OAuth flow links into all that by requiring the Relying Party Id to be supplied as the "resource" parameter on requests to the ADFS OAuth authorize endpoint. 0, mini web 2. Without further Configuration, the Lifetime of a Login-Token in ADFS is very limited. So, with the access token you can now access your API (Relying party) in ADFS. SAML for dummies SURFconext combines all sorts of technologies in a single collaboration platform, and when all these technologies are working in concert, that’s when SURFconext really shines. 0 Access Tokens draft proposes using at+jwt for the value of the typ header in OAuth 2. The client credentials grant type is most commonly used for granting applications access to a set of services. We have an existing ADFS Server with existing Relying Parties, External Claims Providers and Claims Rules. Let's implement a delete operation for the token. I have already proved out getting a token from ADFS using postman and had no issues. xml WS-Federation. I’ll describe two ways to address these issues by faking OAuth2 single sign-on in your tests. com The target system (opentext) successfully redirects to adfs on logon, I enter the logon details into ADFS and it generates the token and passes it back to the app - BUT it does not contain the additional claims (email in this case) I added in the claims issuance policy. This guide is useful if you would need to automatically generate tokens for use in Postman and this has to be generated automatically before every test batch run. The REST APIs for Oracle Process Cloud Service support basic auth, JSON Web Token (JWT), and OAuth for authentication. OAuth2 tokens eventually expire. 0 (Federation using OpenID). Note: Currently, authentication needs to be set up individually for each request. Build a server side application using OAuth confidential clients with AD FS 2016 or later. Active Directory Federation Services This includes ADFS 2. Hi, are you aware that rs:embeded stopped working after the september 2019 release ? Is there a workaround? BR Bobi. I'm trying to upgrade our Windows Identity Foundation Single Sign on System to OAuth 2 for compatibility with our Rest based web services. Using a bearer token does not require a bearer to prove possession of cryptographic key material (proof-of-possession). The access token returned by OpenID Connect is a signed JWT token (JSON Web Token) containing claims about the user. You’re going to want to be quite familiar with both OAuth (and/or OAuth2) and Spring Security, to maximize the effectiveness of this developers guide. 0, login using oauth 2. 0 Management mmc. You are viewing the Apigee Management API reference documentation. For the sample, the goal was to secure a Web API using Facebook’s OAuth 2. In this article we will cover a topic how to authenticate to an API with OAuth 2. In the SharePoint 2013 web app that is setup for claims-based authentication, the ADFS Trusted Provider is chosen (along with Windows) for authentication. Currently, ADFS' OAuth2 does only support authorization code grant. 0 and OpenID Connect 1. GOTO 2018 • Introduction to OAuth 2. 0) Configure federation using SAML (ADFS 2. Laravel Socialite provides an expressive, fluent interface to OAuth authentication with Facebook, Twitter, Google, LinkedIn, GitHub and Bitbucket. Postman collection to get userinfo via ADFS 4. Additionally, an authorization code is also defined. Big picture. NET Web API 2, Owin, OAuth, Bearer Token, Refresh Token with custom database Token base authentication expires over a fixed time, to overcome on it we need to use the refresh token. In the last post, we discussed JSON Web Tokens. Refresh Tokens. Hi everyone, I understand Bubble can integrate with Microsoft Active Directory Federation Services (MS-ADFS) to achieve single-sign on capabilities if OAuth2 is enabled. 0 authorization server (AS ABAP). In the secure way Active Directory resources (like identities) are exposed. So, with the access token you can now access your API (Relying party) in ADFS. 0 access token. 0a but in this post I will only be talking about OAuth2. I know this is determined by the SsoLifetime in ADFS which defines the Oauth refresh token life time. 0 Service returns a refresh token together with an access token in the token response where applicable. 0 SAML Bearer Assertion Flow The OAuth 2. JWTs and OAuth2 Access Tokens. 0 Protocol Extensions for Broker Clients. Technical Documentation. Microsoft however released the ability to use Oauth2 with the new version ADFS 3. It can automatically renew self-signed certificates before expiry, and if a relying party trust is configured for automatic federation metadata updates, automatically provide the new public key to the relying party. Application Integration. The implicit flow is mostly used for clients that run locally on a device, such as an app written for iOS or Windows 8. In this blog post, I want to clarify just how you can make your OAuth 2. We need oAuth because a user may want to right click a file from Dropbox. OAuth2 and OIDC tokens from Azure AD or ADFS. We are new to Boomi and have a requirement whereby a cloud POS system will be making requests to our Boomi integration tier and they use OAuth for their authentication, so we need Boomi to support it. Besides revoking the access token from the token store, the access_token cookie will also need to be removed from the client side. Here is a sample TokenCache class implementation using Redis for use with the Active Directory Access Library (ADAL). The OAuth 2. The access token returned by OpenID Connect is a signed JWT token (JSON Web Token) containing claims about the user. As per ADFS : Daemon and Web API on Server 2016 TP4 ADFS 4. 0 token Response Type is the fragment encoding. Yes, the OneLogin SAML toolkits work with AD FS. 0 client in 5 minutes Getting OAuth 2. pseudo-authentication using OAuth. For example, an access token issued to a client app may be granted READ and WRITE access to protected resources, or just READ access. In the templates for SPA or Web API there are a lot of helper classes to get you up and running with authentication from a mix of providers. 0 with oAuth2. Although the sample uses a UWP client, same code would apply to other. 生活中更常见的是,当你想访问咸鱼的时候,咸鱼会把你转到淘宝的认证页面,在这个页面里,先让你登陆,登陆后让你授权咸鱼访问你的个人资料;如果你同意的话,这个页面就会给你一个token,同通过一开始咸鱼赚到淘宝认证页面时带上的redirect -url,再转到. Changed the Service Package(Api) into OAuth2. The script accomplishes this by crafting a SOAP message and sends it to the appropriate ADFS endpoint specified. 0 STS as the IP-STS and Oracle STS as the RP-STS. JSON Web Token (JWT) is a compact URL-safe means of representing claims to be transferred between two parties. The Authorization Code is an OAuth 2. com\/adfs\/oauth2\/authorize\/","token_endpoint":"https. 0 introduced OAuth2 Authorisation Code flow. published 0. Twitter could have deployed OAuth 1. Can ADFS be used as an authorization server for oauth, or is oauth2 support in ADFS only meant to work as a client to another authorization server?. The Authorization Code is an OAuth 2. Depending on the grant type the flow may consist of a mixture of web application and web service (REST) calls. Introduction. Set to 0 to make the token invalid immediately. Office 365 – Renew your certificates (on-premise ADFS) alert 1 Reply Symptom: After you replace your SSL certificates on your ADFS servers you continue to receive the following alert inside of the Office 365 portal. The 3rd party software is hosted internally on the same network. on getting user profile info using same token along with resource URL, it will return all user profile properties as per custom claim configuration. While the word "token" when used with AD FS is generally referencing the AD FS. id_token: A JWT token used to represent the identity of the user. For ADFS 2. Three claims are passed to Azure AD via the AD FS token when the computer authenticates, and are written as attributes in the newly created device object: Object GUID of computer object on-prem. There are 3 types of tokens used when working with OAuth2 and OpenID Connect. 0 support for Open Authentication (OAuth) tokens in a Microsoft Skype for Business Server 2015 environment. 0 authorization code grant flow and is fairly straightforward. It allows applications (like Linkurious) to verify the identity of End-User based on the authentication performed by an Authorization Server, as well as to obtain basic profile information about the End-User in an interoperable manner. This token will also appear in the Auth tab of the request, where you can either refetch a new token or clear the existing one. SID (Security Identifier) of computer object on-prem. 0 access token from OAuth 2. The authenticated user accesses a web application (OAuth client), which uses an OData service on the backend. OAuth2 : Verifying the Azure AD JWT signature Was having a look at Azure AD and JWT tokens and was wondering how the signature was calculated? I use this useful utility from Auth0 to decode the tokens. The claims in a JWT are encoded as a JSON object that is digitally signed using JSON Web Signature (JWS). Postman : Authorisation Code Grant on Server 2016 - ADFS 4. Use the code you get after a user authorizes your app to get an access token and refresh token. /oauth2/login_no_sso where users are redirected to, to initiate the login with ADFS but forcing a login screen. We’ll discover what is the difference between SAML 2. Single Sign On service (SSO) for Also is a cloud based service. Configuring Single Sign-on with ADFS can be done in two ways, depending on your ADFS version. It allows Clients to verify the identity of the End-User based on the authentication performed by an Authorization Server, as well as to obtain basic profile information about the End-User in an interoperable and REST-like manner. A confidential client is an application that is capable of keeping a client password confidential to the world. 0, login using oauth 2. 0 helps to define the flow to get the access token by which protected resources can be accessed. Its formula for success: simple JSON-based identity tokens (JWT), delivered via OAuth 2. However, ADFS allows you to add claims using the claims rule language so it would be useful if you could utilise that feature to extend. For the SAML Bearer Grant you have request an OAuth2 Access Token from the token endpoint of ABAP's OAuth2 Authorization Server, providing Client credentials of a registered OAuth2 Client and a valid SAML Bearer Token (which might be created by MS ADFS 4. A SAML assertion is an XML security token issued by an identity provider and consumed by a service provider. django-auth-adfs uses this access token to validate the issuer of the token by verifying the signature and also uses it to keep de Django users database up to date and at the same time authenticate users. Access tokens carry the necessary information to access a. The client goes to Azure DRS with the access token obtained to do device registration. Implementing the full standard and giving all the power of token issuance to the administrator. Any specification that uses the authorization process as a form of delegated end-user authentication to the client (e. In AD FS Management, right-click on Application Groups and select Add Application Group. Step [3]: The enterprise application (SP) wants to access an OAuth2 protected API resource through WSO2 API Manager. We’ll discover what is the difference between SAML 2. The client requests the protected resource, authenticating using the Access Token. Application Integration. This guide is useful if you would need to automatically generate tokens for use in Postman and this has to be generated automatically before every test batch run. And my OAuth workflow type is the default User Consent workflow. Web site setup. One of this days I had this really fun challenge that I need to tackle. django-auth-adfs uses this access token to validate the issuer of the token by verifying the signature and also uses it to keep de Django users database up to date and at the same time authenticate users. Here is the sample code which I have tried so far. But the interweaving of those technologies can also make SURFconext seem complex and daunting at times. This section explains how to set up an OAuth 2. Here is the sample code which I have tried so far. Posts about MVC 6 written by Oren Beeri. Calling Azure AD protected web APIs in a web app using OAuth 2. So the two worlds are not directly compatible with each other. An access token is a JSON Web Token (JWT) which is valid for 1 hour and a refresh token which is valid for 14 days. The new token2 programmable tokens available in Feb 2019 can have their clocks resynced to fix this issue. This lesson demonstrates connecting to a Google server that supports OAuth2. This allows for single sign on experience in Microsoft environments. Web Application Proxy receives the redirected HTTPS request from the AD FS server with the edge token and validates and uses the token as follows: Validates that the edge token signature is from the federation service that is configured in the Web Application Proxy configuration. As ADFS on Windows Server 2016 now supports more OAuth2 grant types, is this now possible in server 2016? If so, how does the access token get exchanged for a cookie or does it? If so, how does the access token get exchanged for a cookie or does it?. Tutorial: Grab the latest copy of Fiddler from their website (it is a free download). This includes the following categories of questions: installation, update, upgrade, configuration, troubleshooting of ADFS and the proxy component (Web. By adding the industry-leading multi-factor authentication solution as an AD FS option,. The claim that bearer tokens are a new feature is false. Similar to API keys, you may find OAuth access tokens all over the place: in query string, headers, and elsewhere. OAuth is the standard protocol for API security and app integrations. The attacker then uses the fixated token. OAuth2 tokens eventually expire. Revoke both the access token and the refresh token. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: